One of the most effective frameworks for reflection is Borton’s reflective model, which allows students to be clear about their actions. The framework that Borton introduced has been prevalent for years and applied in different professions. It is most commonly used in Nursing; however, anyone can take advantage of this framework. The model has allowed many professionals to be mindful of their course of action and learn from their mistakes. Borton’s model is a testament to looking into the reflection from a different perspective and knowing its importance. It does not just help professionals to grow but allows students to look into their academic and professional journey.

Borton’s model of reflection is an effective tool to allow students to look within themselves. The concept of reflection allows students to take a pause from their regular busy lives and think. Think about their courses of action, what led to the actions and how they can be rectified. Therefore, it allows students to have linear growth and a curving trajectory in their personal development. But coming back to Borton’s model, how is it such a significant model of knowing and learning? Why was it introduced by Borton, and how it came into existence? Let’s uncover such significant details on the topic and learn more about it.

All inclusive Guide Borton reflective Model

What is Borton’s Reflective Model?

Borton’s reflective model is a framework for a careful consideration of events and experiences. Borton suggests that one should reflect on the kind of experience they have, think about the reason, and look at the betterment of that particular experience/event. The model is very easy to implement, and it encompasses the fields of work that can utilise this framework. Terry Borton, who was an educational theorist and consultant, made this mode to allow people to reflect on their actions. Borton’s model was introduced in 1970 as part of his book “Reach, Touch and Teach”.

What Does it Encompasses?

Borton’s model of reflection 1970 encompasses the three main important questions for the reflection. These questions are the fundamentals of the process to reflect upon any particular event or experience for an individual. While the process of reflection pertains to a single individual, the question it arises encompasses other people too. Each of these questions revolves around the understanding of a particular event or experience. To understand these three important fundamentals of Borton’s model, let’s look at each of them with their examples.


One of the first questions in Borton’s reflective model is - “what?” This question talks about the event or experience that happened and knowing the details. We learn about what happened and what it encompasses when it happened. Each question that has to do something with the basic information on what a particular event or experience is comes under this reflection phase.

Examples: “What happened?”, “What have I done?” “What did others do?”

So What

The second question and phase of the model is, “So what?” and deals with the details of the event or experience. Where we learn what event or experience was in “what, in this phase of Borton’s model of reflection 1970, we go into a little more detail about what happened in this. We reflect on the things that led to the event or experience. This reflection allows us to identify the factors that led to the event or experience.

Examples: “So what did I feel at the moment?” “so what did others feel about it?” “So, what did I learn from this experience/event?”

Now What

The third and final phase and question of this model asks “now what?” This implies that one must look forward and consider the better options and strategies to improve it. Our academic writer explains that this phase of Borton’s model focuses on the next course of action. These actions are related to the previous event or experience and reflect on what can be done now.

Examples: “Now what should I do?”, “Now, what can be done differently?” “Now, what is the conclusion?”

Benefits of Using Borton’s Reflective Model

There are several advantages of using the Borton’s model to reflect on an event or experience. In a general sense, the model introduced by Borton talks about several different aspects of an event or experience. By reflecting on each of the particular detail on the event or experience, one can successfully understand it and be able to tackle it the next time. Borton’s reflective model comprehensively explains the process of reflection upon oneself and the event/experience with three questions.

However, one of the questions in the three of this model asks about what mistakes a person has committed. The final phase and question of the model asking “now what?” induces an individual to accept their mistakes and learn from them. This is quite hard for many people, students and professionals alike, because who can accept their mistakes? The final phase requires an individual to think about the cause and solution, which can only happen when they are ready to acknowledge their mistakes. But what benefits does one have if they successfully use Borton’s model of reflection 1970?

 Let’s Look at Each of the Benefits this Model Provides to an Individual

  • It provides a structured framework for reflection without complicating the process.
  • It is a straightforward and easy structure to follow for learning about an experience.
  • It encourages an individual to think about their actions and reflect on them sincerely.
  • It widens the understanding of a person as they reflect on what the contributions were.
  • It aids the personal development process as one reflects and learns from one’s mistakes.
  • It involves analysis and observation, critical thinking, and widening one’s own skills.
  • It helps professionals from different disciplines to observe, evaluate and enhance their ways of thinking.
  • It paves the way for emotional intelligence as one not only does the intellectual analysis but also reflects on one’s emotions.

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