Distinct academic subjects have particular procedures for consolidating information and citing sources. Such directions are distributed as style manuals. While every citation style is different, the fundamental significance is similar – to facilitate the written form of announcement among members of the academic community. Citation is the straightforward information needed to recognize and discover particular publications like chapters of a book, book, video, website, article, etc.

Collect all the desired information – For both bibliographic and inline citation, students must know the basic information about its construction.

  • E-books – Students want to know the book title, name of the author, publisher, year and place of publication, accessed day, and website where it can be positioned. At times, publishers of physical books outsources the publication of e-books. A distinct publisher will be listed for the e-book version in such cases.
  • Journal articles – In this, students have to note down the author's forename, article heading, journal name, issue number, publication date, volume number, page number of a physical photocopy, and the website of the periodical article.

Citing PDF

Select the style – The most common professional and academic writing styles are APA, Chicago Manual, and MLA. Select the type used in your field or style stated by the university or professor on campus.

  • MLA is normally used by students who study general humanities, arts, or literature.
  • APA is used when students study education, etymology, psychology, or other social disciplines. Communications and journalism often make use of the APA style.
  • Chicago style is used in case students study political science, history, communications, journalism and information science.
  • In specific cases, the professor may ask for a particular reference style which is not generally used in the area or refer the students to their own in-house reference style guidelines - choose the appropriate one for writing.

Insert an inline citation right after referencing a text – To avoid the plagiarism charges, students will insert a reference into the body section of the text. The objective is to express to the audience that the material being offered is acquired from other authors. It depicts to the readers that you are well competent in the present writings and that you are highly involved in constructing off the work of others.

Important Things to be Kept in Mind


Few sources only depict year; others may show month and year while some indicate the full date, described as year, month, day.


Titles of the sources like names of journals, newspapers and magazines are inscribed with a capital letter at the starting of all essential words on the reference page and are normally italicized.

Page numbers

  • Websites normally do not have page numbers; thus, they can be omitted.
  • Periodicals like newspapers, newsletters, journals, and magazines ask for the range of pages in the reference list. They are mentioned after the periodical title, issue number, volume number, and article number.
  • Direct quotations need page number citation when they are depicted in the text. p. abbreviation is used for a single page, and multiple pages, pp. is used.

Issue and volume numbers

The issue and volume number must be included in the reference entry only if the information is depicted clearly in the source material. If no issue and volume number can be found, then page range is the only thing that must be included.

DOIs and web addresses

If the information the student wants to source is on a website, then include the URL link at the end of the reference with no mention of the period. If a source has the DOI number, mention that instead of a website address.

How to Cite PDFs in MLA Style?

To offer a broad MLA citation, students must offer the PDF writer and the page number of references. If the writer is depicted in the declaration, place the page number in interpolations. In the scenario of two writers, place both last names in brackets with 'and' in the center, trailed by a page number. Few PDF files and E-books have static page numbers, wherein the page numbers do not alter contingent on the pageant. If the file has set page numbers, make use of them. In the absence of page figures, do not attempt to provide them. Students can cite by section or chapter instead. As per MLA guidelines, students must indicate the form of electronic files accessed for e-books like PDF files. On the page where works have been cited, cite the journal articles from the online database by providing the publication information. The title of the online database follows wherein the student has found the paper and the medium along with the date on which it is accessed.

How to Cite a PDF in APA Style?

Write the writer's surname and year in brackets with a comma in the middle. If the student has drawn a straight quotation from the unique text, add ‘’p. ‘’ and a space prior to the page figure. Put the citation before a final punctuation mark if there are two or more authors, use & in between the last names of authors. In this style, students must mention the kind of file that has been referred to in rectangular brackets like [Data Set].

The basic setup for APA referencing is the writer's surname, first initial of the author. (Periodical year). '' Book title''. Retrieved from the web address:

How to Cite a PDF as Per the Chicago Manual of Style Standards?

In this style, add the superscript figure at the finish of a sentence. For e-books, a format followed is – Name of author (first then last), Book title in italics (Plucation place: publisher, publishing year), page number, web address.

What is the Importance of Citing and Referencing?

Referencing enables the scholars to recognize the contribution to other novelists and investigators in their work. All university projects based on words, thoughts or study of other authors should comprise citations. Accuracy is necessary for any writing, specifically when students write about science. The very act of looking up a reference for checking serves as an accuracy check. Some of the measures of good research comprise attention towards detail and the capability to discern patterns and make good connections. Adequate attribution of sources encompasses several details like correct page number, the spelling of the authors' name, and adequacy of facts that the writer is depicting in his article or other work.

All writers aspire to write a flawless paper wherein the prose is as compelling as content, and good attribution habits establish a strong foundation for that objective. Referencing or citing particular sources for several facts that have been presented eliminates the signs of fuzzy thinking, knowledgeable laziness, and messy writing as clichés, overviews, and outright wrong claims. A bibliography is the compilation of several sources that students have read and cited in their manuscript, book, dissertation, etc. Therefore, an expanded bibliography signifies a widely read and highly informed scientist. Any academic writing sheet gets vetted repeatedly before making it into print or onto the website. Whether the article is a peer reviewer, editorial assistant or editor whose task is to track down sources in the bibliography and ensure that the citation is adequate, life becomes easier when there is less busywork. Students exploring the advantages of referencing and citing the sources can ask for assignment help from our experts and learn different citing styles.

Citing the sources is essential for several reasons. It provides credit to the authors of the sources whose information has been used, fetches the readers with more information about sources, depicts credibility, and prevents plagiarism. The simplest way to avoid plagiarism is by appropriately noting down the sources during the research and citing the sources in presentations and writings.

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