• Subject Name : IT Computer Science

Emerging Components Using IOT In Block Chain Technology For Upcoming Generation Networks And Communication


Task 1- Annotated bibliography.

Task 2- Journal Synopsis.

Task 1- Annotated Bibliography

[1] Rao, A. R., & Clarke, D. (2019). Perspectives on emerging directions in using IoT devices in blockchain applications. Internet of Things, 100079.doi:10.1016/j.iot.2019.100079 

Rao explains Internet of Things and Block chain and established relation between these two. According to Rao, IoT and Block chain are the future of automated world. The driving factors behind the integration of IoT and Block chain are exponential growth in the use of IoT device, introduction of 5G network and rapid growth of cloud computing and web service. This new technology have wide application in the field of supply chain, healthcare, smart grid, and many other application. Some challenges existing in those three field mentioned previously are storage and computation issues, cybersecurity, privacy issues, and exclusive workforce training and education. The future and other issues are discussed. The article concluded with discussing about unclear future adaptation of block chain for IoT due to various risk factors.

[2] Atzori, L., Iera, A., & Morabito, G. (2017). Understanding the Internet of Things: definition, potentials, and societal role of a fast evolving paradigm. Ad Hoc Networks, 56, 122–140. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2016.12.004

This article is about various evolutionary levels for the development of IoT, along with the inspiration behind their development. IoT has been contributing in dealing with various societal challenges such as healthcare, food security, agriculture, smart transportation, clean energy, climatic issues, and societal security. The previous generations of IoT is categorised in three generations and their architecture is discussed in detail. The article provide insight about the RFID and sensors, M2M communication, IP protocol, cloud networking and other, as a part of IoT development. Atzori and team gave a conceptual view of IoT for the year 2020.

[3] Niyato, D., Lu, X., Wang, P., Kim, D. I., & Han, Z. (2016). Economics of Internet of Things: an information market approach. IEEE Wireless Communications, 23(4), 136–145. doi:10.1109/mwc.2016.7553037 

In this article, Niyato investigated about the economics of IoT through various approaches to represent different issues in IoT. To find out the cost involved in adopting IoT various aspects were reviewed. There are many issues such as multiple entities and rational, heterogeneous large-scale systems, duopoly and oligopoly market which creates hindrance in existing system optimization using IoT. The important points were outlined using which Niyato proposed a game theoretical model to investigate the economics involved in pricing of IoT service.

[4] Singh, S., Sharma, P. K., Yoon, B., Shojafar, M., Cho, G. H., & Ra, I.-H. (2020). Convergence of Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence in IoT Network for the Sustainable Smart City. Sustainable Cities and Society, 102364.doi:10.1016/j.scs.2020.102364

Singh talks about combining artificial intelligence and block chain in IoT network to develop a sustainable smart city. Artificial intelligence and block chain are contradicting technologies. The convergence of both may open a wide spectrum of opportunities. The design for sustainable smart city society is proposed. The limitation, challenges, vulnerability of IoT is discussed based on systematic survey. There are many on-going AI-block chain projects in trading, finance, medicine, supply chain and conversation AI. The future of this convergence will be beneficial in tackling all the issues and resolving problems to develop a sustainable smart city.

[5] Gao, W., Hatcher, W. G., & Yu, W. (2018). A Survey of Blockchain: Techniques, Applications, and Challenges. 2018 27th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (ICCCN).doi:10.1109/icccn.2018.8487348 

This article describes block chain as a mechanism which divide the services, verifiability and security into nodes. It secure storage of transaction history through digital verification system. Gao investigates about the adequacy of present and emerging block chain technology in combating the issues that comes in its application. Block chain framework which is made up of application layer, data layer and network layer is explained in detail. The latest application of block chain are in the field of IoT, cloud computing, identity management, crypto currency, supply chain tracing, business automation, healthcare informatics. The study concluded two main barrier in block chain technology; security issues (Privacy, selfish mining, and abuse of block chain) and performance issues (scalability, availability).

[6] Danzi, P., Kalor, A. E., Stefanovic, C., & Popovski, P. (2018). Analysis of the Communication Traffic for Blockchain Synchronization of IoT Devices. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). doi:10.1109/icc.2018.8422485

Danzi investigated about protocol to synchronizaing IoT devices and Block chain network. The problem relevant to the context are; limited communication resources, low computational and storage resources that create hindrance for IoT to act as Block chain validator. Using MATLAB software the proposed analytic model was verified with the numerical simulation. The article concluded that designing duty cycle of the device should be done considering communication and Block chain parameters as well as the selection of wireless technique. The Block chain protocol require the allocation of significant amount of downlink resources, which is different from that of tradition IoT application which requires uplink resources.

[7] Sun, Y., Zhang, L., Feng, G., Yang, B., Cao, B., & Imran, M. A. (2019). Blockchain-enabled Wireless Internet of Things: Performance Analysis and Optimal Communication Node Deployment. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1–1.doi:10.1109/jiot.2019.2905743 

This article investigates design of a dedicated blockchain-IoT network system. Sun et. The system model for wireless communication was presented by considering spatio-temporal domain characteristic of block chain-enabled IoT system. The SINR distribution analysis was performed to find out the probability density function, FN deployment optimised and security analysis performed. Security performance analysis focused on random link attack, ellipse attack and random FN attack. This framework provides base for future research on algorithm, protocol design and system performance analysis. They recommended adaptation of physical layer security technique to protect wireless block chain system against active attacks.

[8] A. E. Azzaoui, S. K. Singh, Y. Pan and J. H. Park. (2020). Block5GIntell: Blockchain for AI-Enabled 5G Networks. IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 145918-145935. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3014356.

Azzaoui suggests using block chain for AI-enabled 5G network communication. Three different leading technologies, AI, block chain and 5G are combined and the benefits of this convergences is analysed. A framework was developed by the authors to support development of methodology for immutable, distributed, decentralized and smart application. Providing overview of block chain, AI and 5G separately, this article combine all these all together and discuss about the security, application and authentication issues.

[9] Xu, Y., Ren, J., Wang, G., Zhang, C., Yang, J., & Zhang, Y. (2019). A Blockchain-based Non-Repudiation Network Computing Service Scheme for Industrial IoT. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 1–1.doi:10.1109/tii.2019.2897133 

Xu proposed a block chain-based non-repudiation service for industrial IoT network computing system. An approach was developed which uses block chain to record the interaction between service provider and industrial IoT client. A lightweight service authetcication method was design with the assistance of homomorphic hash technique. Along with this, smart contract embedded with service verification method was implemented to help industrial IoT client and service provider to solve any problem in less expenses.

[10] Muthanna, A., A. Ateya, A., Khakimov, A., Gudkova, I., Abuarqoub, A., Samouylov, K., & Koucheryavy, A. (2019). Secure and Reliable IoT Networks Using Fog Computing with Software-Defined Networking and Blockchain. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, 8(1), 15.doi:10.3390/jsan8010015

Muthanna designed a framework for the IoT-fog system that combines block chain with software-defined network. The system is a three layer structure; first layer is of IoT devices and sensors. The second layer is Fog layer which enables data monitoring, classification and analysing. The third layer is of remote cloud unit which supports different IoT protocols. The performance of this framework was analysed on various parameters. The introduction of software-defined network in IoT enhanced the performance and flexibility in utilizing computational resources.

[11] Dwivedi, A., Srivastava, G., Dhar, S., & Singh, R. (2019). A Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Healthcare Blockchain for IoT. Sensors, 19(2), 326.doi:10.3390/s19020326 

This article discuss about the framework for block chain in IoT for healthcare devices that depends on their distributed nature with additional security and privacy properties. Healthcare devices are easy targets for data hackers. A framework is developed which uses ARX encryption algorithm to encrypt the data for block chain along with the addition of digital signature verification for data. Deff-hellman key exchange method is used to public key more securely. This model was developed in controlled environment, future work can be done to take it out of lab and test it in real world scenario.

[12] , M.-L. (2018). Future living framework: Is blockchain the next enabling network? Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 128, 226–234. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2017.12.005 

This article investigates about the need of new urban network and block chain as the new technology which can overtake the existing technology for networking. Marsal-Llacuna conducted a Blockchain4cities research to investigate the need of block chain technology for urban governance. The result confirms that block chain will interrupt and enhance urban network.

Task 2- Journal Synopsis

The aim of this report is to study about the future of the block chain technology in combination with IoT and its role in changing IoT trend in upcoming year. For this purpose, many 12 peer viewed journals were reviewed. These articles are based on the integration of block chain and IoT technology, and its contribution in networking and communication. It is found that this collaboration of block chain and IoT has been evaluated and analysed for various application. The IoT technology keep developing with the introduction latest technologies like cloud networking, RFID, IP protocol and many other. The next generation of IoT will incorporate block chain technique. However, most of the projects based on block chain-IoT integration have been performed in the field of supply chain, finance, AI conversation, food security, and data analysis. Although this newly developed technology, method and framework has yet to be tested in real world scenario at much larger scale in the field of communication and networking.

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