• Subject Name : Management

Enterprise Network Design and Management




Dynamic Routing Protocols.

Routing information protocol

Enhanced interior gateway.

Open Shortest Path First.

OPNET Routing Protocol Model


Analysis and Results.



Abstract on Traffic Engineering with Traditional IP Routing Protocols

Different types of routing protocols are major components of communication systems that are being used in these days. Dynamic routing protocols are used to engender the network topology data to the nearest switches such as RIP (routing information protocol), EIGRP (Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol) and OSFP (Open shortest path first) convention. The decision of selection and implementation of different routing protocols depend on different boundary values. OPNET modeler is used to dissect the presentation of routing protocols such as RIP or OSPF conventions which are basically sent in IP systems. We structured different reproduction situations to think about their production. (Thorup, 2002)

Introduction to Traffic Engineering with Traditional IP Routing Protocols

There are a number of factors on which the routing protocols are dependent because these factors are used in routing calculation. These factors are used to locate best way for the transmission of information over network. These measurements include cost, data transfer rate, data transfer capacity, maximum transmission unit, bundle postponement and bounce tally. A routing table is used by directing protocols in order to store the after effects of these measurements depending on the directing between the autonomous systems and inside an autonomous system. There are two types of routing protocols which are given below:

  1. IGP: Interior gateway protocol
  2. EGP: Exterior gateway protocol

TEAR, OSPF and EIGRP are the types of ordinary IGP while a normal EGP is a BGP or border gateway protocol. Protocol refers to the selection of ways of transmission in a system. In parcel exchanging system, steering coordinates traffic sending of intelligently tended to bundles using hubs from their source to their ultimate destination. Major role of routing protocols in a system is to choose the best way for every switch in the system. (A. Feldmann, 2000) Switches ought to get familiar with the following jump to send the parcels. Sending information ought to be productive and compelling. Thus the selection of a routing protocol plays an important role in arrange execution. EIGRP, OSPF and RIP are most utilized routing protocols among all the routing protocols used in communication system. OPNET Modeler is used to reproduce the execution of internet routing protocols. For every protocol two recreation situations are planned and then collected, looked at, and investigated recreation that brings about the terms of system assembly, directing the traffic, delays in Ethernet, transfer reaction time of email, HTTP page reaction time, bundle start to finish deferral, and delays in voice parcel. (B. Fortz, 2002)

Dynamic Routing Protocols

DRP or dynamic routing protocol performs an important job in the current system as they are used to enhance the trading of routing data among switches. They share the data between switches and update the directing tables whenever the geography is changed and it decides the best to approach the final destination. As compare to the static directing, dynamic routing protocol has better flexibility and versatility and it requires managerial overhead. This routing technique permit switches to progressively publicize and to learn the courses, decide accessible courses and recognize the most proficient courses to a goal. (Thornier, 2009) Dynamic directing protocols have the capacity to keep up the system activity if there should arise an occurrence of a disappointment or when arrange design or geography change. "Separation vector" & "connection state" are utilized to portray directing techniques used by switches in order to advance parcels. There are two gatherings of directing protocols, keeping in view if the routing convention chooses the best way for routing depends on a separation metrics and an interface which choose the best way to the goal through computing. Separation vector assess the best way depending on the separation, which can be estimated as far as bounces or a mix of measurements determined to speak to separation esteem. RIP and IGRO are the routing protocols being used as IP distancing routing protocols. In interface state directing, each hub builds a guide of the availability to the system as a diagram indicating network of the hubs to one another. Every hub on the network automatically selects the best way to every conceivable destination over the network which frames the directing table of hub. In case of connection state protocols, it has switches that declare the nearest neighbor to each other on the network. (A. Feldmann, 2000)

Routing Information Protocol

This is a separation vector routing convention that uses the jump considers a directing measurement. TEAR is actualized based on head of user datagram protocol because of its vehicle convention. The saved port 520 is allotted to it. It forestalls the routing circles by execution of a cutoff on the quantity of jumps permitted from source to final destination. Highest number of allowed bounces is 15. Hence a jump check of 16 is viewed as interminable separation. This bounce number constrains the size of given system that RIP may bolster. Tear chooses ways that have the littlest bounce checks. In any case, the way might be the slowest in the system. (B. Fortz, 2002) Tear is straightforward and proficient in little systems. Every RIP switch in the communication system communicates with other switches depending on the best possible way depending on its 2 estimation. All the switches refresh their routing tables by communicating with their neighbor switches. TEAR switch transmits all the updates after regular intervals of time and it may take up to 60 seconds to unite the dependents on highlights of separation vector protocols. The power utilization and memory used by TEAR is less than other protocols and it might be used in a range of directing gadgets. So it is a better decision in multiband blended system. (Bocking, 2005)

Enhanced Interior Gateway

EIGRP is a routing protocol that is cisco restricted in direction convention. It also depends on another computation calculation known as diffusing update algorithm. It highlights the both separation vector and connection state conventions. EIGRP measurements depend upon unwavering quality, MTU, postponement, burden, and the transmission of data. Deferral and data transmission are the fundamental boundaries for computing measurements. EIGRP collects information from three tables. The first one is neighbor’s table that stores the information of neighbor switches which are opened through interfaces that are associated. The second table is known as geography table that contains the conglomeration of the routing tables which are accumulated from all neighbors. This table contains the rundown of goal systems in EIGRP directed systems and particular measurements of them. Third table stores the real courses to all the goals. EIGRP contrasts from most of the separation vectors conventions because it does not depend on occasional course dumps. Hence it is equipped for keeping its geography table in it. The data that is steered will probably trade when a new neighbor adjacencies is setup. It keeps up its own directing table and table of neighbors. Thus the EIGRP switch communicates to different neighbors on the off chance that it cannot find a switch dependent on its directing storage or database. (M. W. El-Kharashi, 2002)

Open Shortest Path First

OSPF uses the AS link-only algorithm. OSPF is a good IGP theme and can quickly appear compared to RIP. OSPF maintains the routing table for any network communication and only RIP maintains the best routing table for all results. Every router in OSPF stores a LAN connection with a link declaration state and specifies each AS. Any router that receives LSA is created by the router in the United States. The group creates LSDB (LSA link state database). Each LSA contains topology environment information on the router. Thus LSDB reflects the network topology of AS link. (Thorup, 2002)Whenever a new router is added to the network it sends the message to all borders and receives comments from all of its neighbors. Finally, the routers on the network organize the connection with newly installed router and synchronize their routing data.. No link status message when the topology of network is changed.. This means that the routers on the network can keep the same information in the structure of network. Which router determines the best path for each result and displays the router lock for all transmissions. OSPF is the IGP most used in large corporate networks. (Thornier, 2009)

OPNET Routing Protocol Model

In order to arrange the recreations an OPNET modeler rendition 14.0.A has been used. This is an extensive system reproduction instrument that has a large number of ground breaking capacities. It enhances the production of heterogeneous systems by using a different convention. The mimicked arrange appeared in Figure 1 comprises of five subnets associated with one another having point to point protocol using digital signal 3 of DS3, 44.7 Mb/sec. (Newton, 2008) Every subnet comprises of 7200 Switches of Cisco, Ethernet server, cisco 3600 switches and a 100 BaseT LANs. The hubs are connected with 100 BaseT links as appeared in the figure below: 

OPNET Node Model of LAN within Subnet Nodes:

RIP routing is used in principal reproduce arrangement. A similar model is used to recreate EIGRP and OSPF protocols. Here are three situations of this function:

  • Tear No come up short
  • EIGRP no come up short
  • OSPF no fall flat

This includes the disappointment/recuperation setting to every situation and it makes three extra situations known as RIP, OSPF and EIGRP. (M. W. El-Kharashi, 2002)


Six simulation scenarios have been used to simulate the convergence activity of network and traffic protocol. The protocols like RIP and EIGRP are selected under the global simulation scenarios.

Network Convergence: Both EIGRP and OSPF protocols experience shortest and longest convergence time for network respectively.

Network convergence with no failure: network activity faces the failure at 290 seconds and recovers at 500 seconds.

Routing Traffic: The traffic generated by OSPF is higher than that of EIGRP and RIP

Ethernet delay: EIGRP experiences the lowest delay while RIP experiences the highest delay

Email upload time: The shortest response time before failure is by OSPF as compare to the other protocols.

HTTP response time: OSPF shows the minimum response time for HTTP page response with failure at 290 and recovery at 500 seconds (Bocking, 2005)

Analysis and Results of Traffic Engineering with Traditional IP Routing Protocols

The results from the above scenarios demonstrate that the performance of RIP is better as far as the voice parcel delay because it is a straightforward routing protocol that is dependent on separation vector calculations only. The TEAR protocol produces less protocol traffic as compare to EIGRP and OSPF protocol, especially in medium sized system mimicked. One of the shortcomings of TEAR is its slower assembly in large size systems. This issue may cause conflicting directing sections at times it brings about routing circles or measurements moving toward endlessness. Tear is favored in systems littler than 15 bounces. EIGRP performs better as far as system combination, Ethernet delay and traffic. (B. Fortz, 2002) In EIGRP both the qualities of separation vector and connection state protocols exists and it has an improved system combination and decreased routing protocol traffic with less usage of CPU and ram as compare to that of RIP and OSPF. It has exceptionally low usage of system assets during its ordinary operations as it just involves the transmission of parcels. When a directing table changes, its combination time reduces and it diminishes data transmission usage. EIGRP is a protocol that is cisco exclusive and thus a system with a non cisco switch cannot convey EIGRP. The performance of OSPF is better as far as HTTP page reaction time and parcel start to finish delay for video conferencing. It has enormous protocols overhead while refreshing the directing table. In the event that there is no system change, OSPF utilizes next to no data transfer capacity. It is an open standard protocol and it can deal with enormous systems. One of its advantages is that, it depends on a progressively mind boggling calculation contrasted with other protocols and it requires more opportunity to merge while building the routing table, subsequently it creates extra protocols traffic. In case of a medium size recreated arrange, OSPF request extra preparation and memory necessity and devours a huge data transfer capacity for the underlying connection state parcel flooding. (A. Feldmann, 2000)

Conclusions on Traffic Engineering with Traditional IP Routing Protocols

For the results and analysis above it is concluded that the OPNET modeler can be used organizations to choose the most appropriate and most effective routing protocol in order to plan and develop an ideal routing topology in order to make their network more efficient and reliable.

References for Traffic Engineering with Traditional IP Routing Protocols

Feldmann, A. G. (2000). Netscape: traffic engineering for IP networks. IEEE Network Magazine, 11–19.

Fortz, J. R. (2002). Traffic engineering with traditional IP routing protocols. IEEE Communications Magazine, (pp. 118–124). Melbourne .

Bocking, S. (2005). Object-oriented network protocols. Proceedings of INFOCOM ', (pp. 1245-1252). Kobe.

W. El-Kharashi, G. D. (2002). Understanding and implementing computer network protocols through a lab project. IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 45, 276-284.

Newton, H. ( 2008). Newton’s Telecom Dictionary 24th Edition. New York: Flatiron Publihing.

Thornier, S. G. (2009). Communication service provider’s choice between OSPF and IS-IS dynamic routing protocols and implementation criteria using OPNET simulator. econd International Conference on Computer and Network Technology (ICCNT), (pp. 119-122). Bangkok.

Thorup, B. F. (2002). Optimizing OSPF/IS–IS weights in a changing world. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 20, 756–767.

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