Table of Contents
Description of recent changes within Australia in terms of the case management service system..
Implications these have for case management.
The present report is addressing the changes that occurred in the case management system across Australia with the implementation of new policies recently. The concept of case management and social policies have been included for a better understanding of the changes in the case management landscape in Australia. Various policies have been implemented by the government of Australia for better case management service system to be accessible by the consumers. All the recent policies and the implementations concerning case management service system along with the impact of these changes are analysed in this report in-depth with reference to the aged care services. The present piece of work will ensure the reader to get enlightened with the changes in case management service system and the various arguments of marketisation and privatisation of healthcare with these policies.
Case management is a collaborative process of planning, facilitation, assessment and services to meet the holistic need of the individuals (Commission for Case Manager Certification, 2015). The case management requires to incorporate a great understanding of accessing a program based on the various experiences of the promise of specific individuals throughout their life. Good case management should not only meet the requirements of the clients but also develop potential in the client to self-manage and access the supports required for being independent. The case management service system is achieved through a collaboration of the relationship between the client and the case manager or the case management team with the key stakeholders.
Case management is a multi-disciplinary advanced practice in the field of health and human services. The role of social policy is crucial as the objective of these case management is correlated to them. The objective of social policy is enhancing the well-being of the people concerning the welfare of those who require such care in particular (McClelland & Smyth, 2015). The concerned person identifies and meets with goals determined by the patients and the support system approach by them which often includes the family members. In the case management, the patient is also termed as ‘client’ which it is proposed as a specific individual getting the case management services. The social policy brings a broader perspective towards the health care and well-being of the patient straight from the patient discharge from acute care to living an independent life. The social policy is about the patient-centred holistic approach which goes beyond the so-called treatment of the patient suffering from any sort of disease (Harkey, 2017).
One of the most recent changes introduced in the case management system across Australia is the approach of competitive environment provided by the implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS). This approach has impacts on the collaboration between the service provider and the case management services. However, there are pieces of evidence showing the lack of coordination on the part of information sharing between the organisations and the case management team/ managers which could have a major impact on the case management services system (Green, Malbon, Carey, Dickinson and Reeders, 2018). There has been a marketisation of the aged care in Australia with respect to the case management services magnifying this service as a commodity for purchase in the market lately (Henderson & Willis, 2019).
The Australian government has adopted a Consumer Directed Care Model since July 2015 for case management service to the aged care (Introduction to Consumer Direction Care for Home Care Packages, 2015). The extensive policy reforms provide various opportunities for the stakeholders but have challenges as well. Consumer Direct Care service provided to the Australians is actually an approach of greater independence and control over the choice and services to be deceived by the clients. The consumers have flexibility and choice in CDC to manage their packages, cost of services and the finance. transparency has been insured to provide a better picture of complete control over the type of care and services one wishes to have (Aged Care Guide, n.d.).
The legislative changes brought with the productivity commission have enabled less control over the ownership of residential aged care services with the facility of allocating and transferring licences to provide services. The introduction of the payment for services in residential aged care has provided for a shift in the funding of residential aged care. All the major changes brought in the case management services system recently has eventually progressed to the promotion of private ownership of age care services by for-profit service providers.
The policies introduced have made such a change that the overall picture of the case manager and management services team has come up with various challenges for the clients as well as the case management team and managers. As per Progomet et al. (2017), the policies have led to a confrontation between the case management system and the client expectations with respect to the assistance provided by service plans. It is leading to a disharmony between the agency director model policies and practice. The policies also led to a change in the relationship and experience of the care workers with their clients. Although there were potential benefits of observed for the clients with the introduction of these policies as well (Ottmann, Allen & Feldman, 2013).
The changes brought with the implementation of new policies in healthcare has a significant impact on the case management service system flourished in Australia. These changes have a role not only with the clients but also has significance over the case managers, teams as well as the historical and political aspect of the case management service system. With the assistance of various studies conducted by the researchers, the report will give an in-depth account of these implications. The introduction of these policies is leading to more investment in time over the interaction with the client as clients are not competent enough to self-manage themselves (KPMG, 2019). This has a major impact on the role of the case management in community aged care as there will be a major shift to the client and advocacy of care options.
The policies have privatised the aged care and other healthcare services of the nation in such a way that it has even resulted in bowing down of the clients on any prospective service offered by this policy. Also, external influences like previous aged care service experience, cultural differences are encountered as one of the themes related to the experience of the consumers with the emergence of these policies (Gill, Bradley, Cameron & Ratcliffe, 2018). The changes in the policy have laid down the case management services between the conflicting tension of historical sociology and political-economic analysis ((Fine & Davidson, 2018).
The marketisation of aged care has resulted in the shift from the traditional welfare state forms of public services to the increasingly marketize system of provisions in Australia. Consequently, the replacement of scarce public resources with the private capital and resources represented expenditure cuts in the form of better service innovation and more consumer choice. Arguably, the finance, management work of the state and regulation are crucial factors for the support previously provided through the non-market processes (Fine & Davidson, 2018).
The competitive environment developed with the introduction of this policy and the shift from block funding to pay for service model of funding has even reduced the capability of various organisations to respond to the crisis in care suggesting a bad impact of the competitiveness and marketization of the case management service system (Green, Malbon, Carey, Dickinson & Reeders, 2018).
Tracking of the process of marketization in the book called Wrong Way: How Privatization and Economic Reforms Backfired (Cahil & Toner, 2018), Davidson has suggested the present stage of the aged care service to be a consumer drive in a competitive market. This stage has begun in 2011 with the formation of productivity commission report into age care and later survived with the living longer living better package of 2012 provided by the Gillard government. The argument put forward by Davidson is that the advance of market-based strategies and the issues in the aged care services which has influenced the royal commission are closely related (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2018).
The government of Australia is working progressively towards providing a better case management service system to its citizen with healthcare issues and disabilities. The government aims to ensure an independent consumer with a control on the care system provided to them which is appreciated by the researchers as well as the clients. Although there are challenges in the recent policies implemented across the nation in case management service system. The case management system has been encountered as a tool of marketisation of the aged care and privatisation of the healthcare system. The various researchers have argued these changes to bring a shift from the traditional approach of the case management service system to a market-based approach considering the care to be a commodity purchased by the clients. A better case management service system will ensure a priority to provide care to the clients in coordination providing assistance and independence.
Aged Care Guide. (n.d). Consumer Directed Care (CDC).
Cahill, D. & Toner, P. (2018). Wrong Way: How Privatisation & Economic Reform Backfired. Australia: Black Inc.
Commission for Case Manager Certification. (2016). NASW, CCMC collaborate to address growing demand for health care case managers. Retrieved from https://ccmcertification.org/media/media-kit/press-releases/nasw-ccmc-collaborate-address-growing-demand-health-care-case-manager.
Davidson, B. (2018). The marketization of care: Global challenges and national responses in Australia. Current Sociology Monograph, 66(4), 1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392118765281
Gill, L., Bradley, S., Cameron, I. & Ratcliffe J. (2018). How do clients in Australia experience Consumer Directed Care?. BMC Geriatr, 18(1), 148. DOI:10.1186/s12877-018-0838-8
Green ,C., Malbon, E., Carey, G., Dickinson, H. & Reeders, D. (2018). Competition and Collaboration between service providers in the NDIS. Retrieved from https://www.csi.edu.au/media/Report_-_Competition__Collaboration_in_the_NDIS_2018.pdf
Harkey, J. (2017). Case Management at the Intersection of Social Work and Health Care. Social Work Today. 17(1), 20. Retrieved from: https://www.socialworktoday.com/archive/011917p20.shtml
Henderson, J. & Willis, E. (2019). The marketisation of aged care: The impact of aged care reform in Australia. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/332910115_The_Marketisation_of_Aged_Care_The_Impact_of_Aged_Care_Reform_in_Australia
Introduction to Consumer Direction Care for Home Care Packages. (2015). Accounting Implications. Retrieved from: https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/pdf/2015/07/consumer-directed-care-accounting-implications-july-2015.pdf
KPMG. (2019). A step up for our kids: one step can make a lifetime of difference. ACT Our of Home Care Strategy 2015-2020. Retrieved from: https://www.communityservices.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/1393803/Final_Mid-Strategy-Evaluation-Report.pdf
McClelland, A. & Smyth, P. (2015). Social Policy in Australia. Australia: Oxford University Press.
Ottmann, G, Allen, J & Feldman, P. (2013). A systematic narrative review of consumer-directed care for older people: Implications for model development. Health & Social Care in the Community. DOI: 21. 10.1111/hsc.12025.
Prgomet, M., Douglas, H.E., Tariq, A., Georgiou, A., Armour, P., & Westbrook, J.I. (2017). The Work of Front Line Community Aged Care Staff and the Impact of a Changing Policy Landscape and Consumer-Directed Care, The British Journal of Social Work, 47(1), 106–124. DOI: 10.1093/bjsw/bcw112
The Sydney Morning Herald. (2018). The 'marketisation' of aged care. Retrieved from: https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/the-marketisation-of-aged-care-20180921-p5057m.html
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