• Subject Name : Nursing

Impact of Contact on Adolescents' Mental Health Literacy and Stigma

Mental illness is a very common problem in the Australian population. It is known as one in every five Australians in the age group of 16-85 years is suffering from psychological illness in a year. From the widespreadpsychological illnesses, substance use disorder, depression, and anxiety are most common. The statistics present that 6% of Australianshave depressive, 5% substance use disorders, and 14% anxiety disorders. There are 54% of mentally ill persons who do not access any treatment. However, this problem takes a worse figure if not cured, diagnosed, and detected at the time (Kopera, Suszek, Bonar et al., 2015). It is said that people with mental disorders is half that of people with physical disorders. Around 75% of people are admitted to public sector mental health inpatient services to treat the patients (Kulesza, Pedersen, Corrigan et al., 2015).Mental illness affects the thoughts, mood, and behavior of a person or the way the world perceives them. This affects the person’s ability to maintain relationships and in day to day functioning. Mental illness attracts stigma and discrimination and this is the biggest problem for a person with mental disorders.

In Australia, one in every ten mentally ill patients commits suicide. Numerous people with stern psychological ill health are challenge twice. Firstly, they resist with the symptoms and disabilities that consequence from the illness. Secondly, they are confronting by the stereotype and narrow-mindedness so as to consequence from misconception concerning psychological illness. Since a consequence of in cooperation, citizens with psychological ill health are robbed of the chance that describes an fineness life: high-quality job, safe accommodation, acceptable physical state care, and connection with a diverse group of people. Though investigation has left far to be grateful for collision of the ill health, it has only recently begin to give details the disgrace in mental illness (Polaha, Williams, Heflinger et al., 2015). A great deal labor yet supplies to be done to fully appreciate the width and scope of chauvinism next to people with psychological illness. Providentially, communal psychologists and sociologists have been studying observable fact connected to disgrace in other marginal groups for more than a few decades. In this document, we examine the points that how psychological ill health is a blockade to care, overcoming steps, and stigma emotionally involved to it. The past and occurrence will explain the general figures and circumstances of psychological illness. Care stipulation by primary healthcare services is the method to prevent enduring from major suffering and speedy recovery. 

Mental illness is a treatable disorder in which two-third of public with psychological illness do not look for any behavior. Medicine, psychological therapy, and lifestyle changes are effective for mental illness. Health professionals take care of psychologically ill patients by giving the care to them. The crash of dishonor is double; community stigma is the reply that the wide-ranging inhabitants have to citizens with mental illness. Self-stigma is the narrow-mindedness in which citizens with psychological illness turn around next to themselves. In collaboration community and self-stigma may be understood in terms of three mechanisms: stereotypes, small-mindedness, and favoritism. Communal psychologists view stereotypes as predominantly well-organized, social information structures that are erudite by most members of a communal group. Stereotypes are careful "social" since they stand for together agreed-upon ideas of groups of people. They are "well-organized" for the reason that people can rapidly produce imitation and prospect of persons who be in the right place to a stereotyped collection. The detail that most public be acquainted with a set of stereotypes does not entail that they have the same opinion with them. For instance, numerous personnel can remember stereotype concerning dissimilar racial group excluding do not agree that the stereotype are suitable. Biased public, on the other hand, hold up these unresponsive stereotypes and create pathetic poignant reaction as a result. In difference to stereotypes, which are attitude, prejudicial attitude engage an evaluative constituent. Prejudice in addition yield moving response to stigmatized group (Holman, 2015).

Prejudice is said to be an effective and cognitive response that leads to discrimination based on behavioral reaction. In case the prejudice leads to anger then it could result in bad behavior. Angry prejudice could withhold or replace healthcare provisions by providing criminal justice system. Prejudice, however, leads to discrimination. From the different researches, it has been said that fear of rejection and self-stigma leads to people not moving further to explore their opportunities for themselves (Sercu, Ayala & Bracke, 2015).

Stigma related to healthcare is widely spread by the general public in Australia and other countries (Hanafiah & Van, 2015). Stigmatizing covers ignorant members of the all-purpose public and even skilled mental health professionals donate to mental illness. A comparative to Australia countries like Africa and Asia represents the cultural sphere to promote stigma in societies. The attitude towards mental illness is low than in western countries the same stigma is also less than in Western countries. It has been found that there is no stigma in Islamic culture. The examination of concepts, responses, and experiences to mental illness is needed (Chisholm, Patterson, Torgerson et al., 2016).

There are several misconceptions related to stigmatizing and illness attitudes. According to the perception of media, it has been found that mentally ill patients are homicidal, they have a dependency on others for their weaker character, and they have childlike perception towards the world. The findings of the American survey suggest that they feel exclusion and fear, benevolence, and authoritarianism. Fear and exclusion are related with persons who have severe mental illness and are kept out of the societies (Gaddis, Ramirez & Hernandez, 2018).

Stigmatizing attitude is not inadequate to mental illness; in the real sense public seem to criticize personnel with disabilities in a more interesting way than persons related to other illnesses. Mental illnesses are linked to attitudes like criminality, drug addiction, and prostitution. The normal public thinks that a person with physical disabilities is responsible for causing them. There are four forms in which people with disabilities have a behavioral impact (Chan, Lee, Cheng et al., 2019). At the extreme level, social avoidance is there that holds the minority groups corresponding to stigma. The point that comes out from public opinion is the discrimination on the way of treating mentally ill patients. Three approaches have been found to change the strategies that are there in different groups such as contact, protest, and education. The group protests should be done to reduce the stigma that is there in the minds of the public. The efforts should be made and messages should be sent. The media should not report misrepresentations of mental illness. The public should also not believe in negative views about mental illness. It is known that protest campaigns are found to be effective to get stigmatized images of mental illness (Thornicroft, Mehta & Element et al., 2016).

The people who have a good considerate of disgrace in psychological wellbeing are less likely to do favoritism with mentally ill patients. Hence, the strategic provisions of information to lessen stigma should be followed to lessen the negative impact on ill patients. From the different studies, it has been seen that educational programs have helped to improve the attitude of different people about problems (Bauman, 2016). A wide variety of participants are involved in educational programs like students, undergraduate students, postgraduate students, residents of the community, and mentally ill persons. Stigma towards mental illness is diminished if the member of the universal public meets people with psychological illness and resides with them as good neighbors. Hence, the opportunities help the community to get together with mentally ill patients and discount stigma. Interpersonal contact should be maintained and enhanced if regular contact is there as peers (Bharadwaj, Pai&Suziedelyte, 2017). Taking action on stigma is simple. The direct contact should be maintained to hear mentally ill patients and their views. The important steps that could be taken to have effective response are getting the right figures, reporting to stigma watch, and complaining directly you. The stigma should be reported in the way to get positive portrayal, understand the language, and media responses. The work will be effective if the harsh steps would be taken to look after this matter.

Based on this discussion, it could be known that there is a great need to learn about the unenthusiastic belongings of stigma on mentally ill patients. The ideas are supposed to be thought so that new points could be used to diminish stigma from society. In the beginning, models should be developed for self-stigma to understand the original processes and work accordingly. The model should be tested on the grounds of various groups such as ethnic groups, diversity of the population, sub-population, and power holders. Wise contact should be done to be effectual in altering the attitude of the public. In the end, the policy developers must understand that whether the new strategies made have been effective on grounds or not. Learn on the disgrace associated with mental illness is ignored from very starting but is essential to be taken into account. Stigma is proof of the application of laws, social services, and the justice system in an allocated manner. Hence, the changes should be made and followed. The measures like timely reporting, involvement of media, consulting mental health patients, and effective decision making will help in strengthening the system to reduce stigma.

References for Impact of Contact on Adolescents' Mental Health Literacy and Stigma

Bauman, N. J. (2016). The stigma of mental health in athletes: Are mental toughness and mental health seen as contradictory in elite sport? Mental Health, 4(2)

Bharadwaj, P., Pai, M. M., &Suziedelyte, A. (2017).Mental health stigma. Economics Letters159, 57-60.

Chan, K. L., Lee, C. S., Cheng, C. M., Hui, L. Y., So, W. T., Yu, T. S., & Lin, C. Y. (2019). Investigating the relationship between weight-related self-stigma and mental health for overweight/obese children in Hong Kong. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease207(8), 637-641.

Chisholm, K., Patterson, P., Torgerson, C., Turner, E., Jenkinson, D., & Birchwood, M. (2016). Impact of contact on adolescents' mental health literacy and stigma: The SchoolSpace cluster randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open6(2), e009435.

Gaddis, S. M., Ramirez, D., & Hernandez, E. L. (2018). Contextualizing public stigma: Endorsed mental health treatment stigma on college and university campuses. Social Science & Medicine197, 183-191.

Hanafiah, A. N., & Van Bortel, T. (2015).A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia. International Journal of Mental Health Systems9(1), 1-12.

Holman, D. (2015). Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma, and mental health literacy using British national survey data.Health:19(4), 413-429.

Kopera, M., Suszek, H., Bonar, E., Myszka, M., Gmaj, B., Ilgen, M., &Wojnar, M. (2015).Evaluating the explicit and implicit stigma of mental illness in mental health professionals and medical students.Community Mental Health Journal51(5), 628-634.

Kulesza, M., Pedersen, E. R., Corrigan, P. W., & Marshall, G. N. (2015).Help-seeking stigma and mental health treatment seeking among young adult veterans. Military Behavioral Health3(4), 230-239.

Polaha, J., Williams, S. L., Heflinger, C. A., &Studts, C. R. (2015). The perceived stigma of mental health services among rural parents of children with psychosocial concerns. Journal of Pediatric Psychology40(10), 1095-1104.

Sercu, C., Ayala, R. A., &Bracke, P. (2015). How does stigma influence mental health nursing identities? An ethnographic study of the meaning of stigma for nursing role identities in two Belgian Psychiatric Hospitals. International Journal of Nursing studies52(1), 307-316.

Thornicroft, G., Mehta, N., Clement, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Doherty, M., Rose, D.,& Henderson, C. (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. The Lancet387(10023), 1123-1132.

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