• Subject Name : Nursing

Type 2 Diabetes Health Promotion Plan

Introduction to Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the major global health care burdens and types 2 diabetes is characterized by the dysfunction of the pancreatic beta-cell that lead to insulin resistance in the body. Unaddressed Type 2 diabetes leads to the microvascular and macrovascular complication that increases the distress of the patient (Chatterjee et al., 2017). The health promotion plans are considered to be the best method to address the issue at the community level to improve the wellbeing of the individual. The health promotion utilizes the holistic approach to improve the perspectives of the population concerning the disorder that leads to better health outcome (Edington et al. 2015). The self-management skills for diabetes is important to manage the fluctuation in the blood glucose level and reduce the chances of complication of that can occur due to unmanaged Type 2 diabetes. The self-management helps to improve the self-efficacy of the diabetic patient to improve the health status by reducing chances of complication (Van Smoorenburg, et al., 2019). The report is going to present the health promotion plan for the patient encountered Type 2 diabetes and thus will help them to improve self-management skills that are important to manage the health status.

The Target Group for Health Promotion Plan

The target population for the health promotion plan are an adult individual with diabetes belonging to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2020) stated that around 1.2 million Australian has diabetes mellitus that is increasing complication of the population. The prevalence of diabetes in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is about 7.9% that is 3% more likely to when compared to the non-Indigenous population. This indicates the urgent need to address the issue in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population to improve the equity in the health care sector. The target population for the health promotion plan will be Male in the Indigenous population due to eh increase vulnerability. The study presented by Kautzky-Willer et al. (2016) discussed that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is more in male when compared to the female. The prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes is more in male but female experience serious complication associated with diabetes like neuropathy or hypertension. The nest aspect in the target population is the population diagnosed with the Type 2 diabetes or have experienced any Type 2 diabetes-associated complication. The study presented by Huo et al. (2018) discussed that patient with diabetes or encountered any complication need urgent attention to improve the self-management skills to improve health status. The patient with Type 2 diabetes requires the right health promotion to assist them to improve their health management skills.

Importance of Health Promotion Plan

The self-management skills of the patient are considered to be very important to manage the health status by managing lifetime disorder. The health promotion plan is framed in such a way to help the patient to understand the different approaches that can be used to improve health status by managing and improving the patient lifestyle. The study presented by Phillips (2016) discussed that diabetes management is complicated due to a lack of patient understanding and skills. The health promotion plan is important to improve patient educating concerning diabetes and skills that are important to manage the fluctuation of the health status. The patient with Type 2 diabetes needs to take over the control for managing the health status that will reduce the chances of complication. Moreover, the studies presented by Adu et al. (2019) discussed that different barriers are associated with the self-management skill of the patient thus health care professionals are expected to reduce the barriers and improve the skills. The health care professional should utilize therapeutic communication to improve the patient knowledge concerning the referrals that are important to consult during any complication.

The Goal for The Health Promotional Plan

The framing of the goal is important to improve the structure of the health promotion plan which will improve the care process that leads to the achievement of the desired outcome. The SMART goal helps to understand the realistic view of the goal that improves the implementation of the plan. The goal setting is important to have a vision for the care which helps to improve the implementation process to deliver quality care (Ogbeiwi, 2018). The goal for health promotion is to improve the self-efficacy of the diabetic to improve the management of the health status. The health promotion will try to improve the Self-management skill of the diabetic patient within four weeks to improve management of the disorder and associated complication. The health promotion plan aims to increase patient self-skills to get control over the fluctuated health status and to increase the overall quality of the life for the diabetic patient.

Health Promotion Management Perceptive

The health promotion plan has addressed the tertiary management perceptive to address already establish by improving the patient ability to deal with health to decrease disability or complication associated with the Type 2 diabetes. The health promotion utilizes the tertiary prevention stage principle that includes re-integration, re-stabilizing, re-socialize and re-motivate the patient to manage the health. The study presented by Ali & Katz (2015) discussed that tertiary preventive program needs to be holistic to address the deteriorating health of the patient. The holistic approach uses the medication, lifestyle and patient role to manage the disorder by improving the skills of the patient. The lifetime disorder requires the integrated health care approach to address all the need of the patients that are important to deal with all the health issue and manage them to improve health status. Another aspect presented by Pandev (2014) added that tertiary prevention is important to soften the impact of the disorder over the individual to prevent the deteriorated health or complication that can lead to poor health of the patient. The tertiary prevention is important when the condition of the patient cannot be reversible thus patient requires only the right assistance to improve the health management. Tertiary prevention is important to help the patient with lifetime disorder by improving the quality of life that is important to manage the patient health status. The study presented by Kisling & Das (2020) discussed that tertiary prevention is important to assist the patient by addressing both clinical aspect and disease outcome over the health. The major aim of the prevention method is to decrease the severity of the symptoms that are important for the health status of the patient. Tertiary prevention commonly aims at the rehabilitation efforts concerning patient health status. The health promotion plan is framed in such a way that it helps and support the diabetic patient to improve their efficacy concerning the different health management approaches.

Stakeholders for Health Promotion Plan

The stakeholders are considered to be the backbone of the health promotion plan as they help in the right framing of the project which leads to easy implementation. Engaging the stakeholders in the health promotion plan improve the impact of the project over the community that is the major aim of the health promotion plan. The different stakeholders that can be engaged in the plan can be the governmental organization that includes national and local government as they help to improve the environment that is proactive for the implementation of the program (Harris et al., 2016). The non-governmental organizations are also one of the major stakeholders as they can help in aware the community and improve the understanding concerning the issue. The civil society organizations can also help to conduct the health promotion plan for the welfare of the community. Hospital administrators and governing body play important role in planning the different sessions for the health promotion plan and last are the team of health care providers as they are directly involved in providing the care to the participant (Majid et al., 2018).

Health Logo

The health logo for the health promotion plan should address the aim of the plan that is the empowerment of the diabetic patient to manage their diabetes and associated complication.

‘You have the power to control your diabetes’

Health Promotion Plan

The health promotion plan will be conducted in different sessions that are conducted one by one to improving the understanding of the patient concerning the different aspect of the self-management approach. The first session will be about improving the lifestyle by incorporating the physical activity that is important to improve the metabolism and decrease the fluctuation in the blood glucose level. One of the studies presented by Yanai et al. (2018) discussed that physical activity should be included in the diabetic patient routine to decrease the chances of complication. The sedentary lifestyle increases the chances of elevated blood glucose level that is directly associated with increase complication. The second session will be about the dietary intervention that is important to manage the intake and expenditure of the calories to manage the blood glucose level. The study presented by Sami et al. (2017) added that nutritional balance is important for the diabetic patient to improve sugar intake. The dietary intervention helps the patient to have a set schedule for the calories intake which is important for managing blood glucose level.

The third session includes points concerning the adherence to medication and understanding the impact with the side effect. According to Siegel et al. (2020), patient with the Type 2 diabetes should be strict toward their insulin administration before the diet to manage the blood glucose level. The adherence to the medication helps the patient to be able to manage the blood glucose level and side effect information can help the patient to manage the condition if encountered any of them. The last session will be concerning the blood glucose monitoring that is important to keep a track of the minor or major fluctuation in the blood glucose level. The study presented by Patton (2015) added that patient with Type 2 diabetes should routinely monitor their blood glucose level to keep a record that is important for the future care perspective.

The promotion of the plan will be conducted via social media so that a large number of populations can be aware of the health promotion plan. Another method that can be utilized is through the supportive organization where the diabetic patients are informed concerning the health promotion plan and its utility in managing diabetes-associated complication.

Evaluation of Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Evaluation is important in the health promotion plan to understand the impact of the intervention over the population and identify the gap that needs to be addressed to improve the promotional plan (Kaur et al., 2015). The evaluation will be conducted by utilizing the Diabetes Self-Care Activities Assessment to understand the patient understanding concerning self-management skills. The evaluation process also includes feedback from the stakeholder to understand the organizational aspect of the health promotion plan.

Conclusion on Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes

The report can be concluded that self-management skill of the patient for managing the type 2 diabetes is important and self-management for type 2 diabetes health promotion plan will assist the patient to improve their skills. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in males belong to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander need urgent attention this they are the target population for the plan. The health promotion plan is designed to improve the knowledge of the patient regarding the different self-management approaches to improve the health status of the diabetic patient. The goal for the health promotion plan is to improve the patient power to manage the fluctuation in the health status and control the diabetic without encountering any complication. The management perspective for the plan utilizes the territory approach to empower the patient to be self-sufficient to manage the health. Governmental, non-governmental, health care and health care providers are major stakeholders in the health promotional plan. The different session of the plan includes physical activity, dietary, medical adherence and blood glucose monitoring that are important to manage the Type 2 diabetes of the patient. The health promotion plan will help to address the community issue that will directly decrease the health care burden. 

References for Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Adu, M. D., Malabu, U. H., Malau-Aduli, A. & Malau-Aduli, B. S. (2019). Enablers and barriers to effective diabetes self-management: A multi-national investigation. PloS One14(6), 1-22. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217771

Ali, A. & Katz, D. L. (2015). Disease prevention and health promotion: How integrative medicine fits. American Journal of Preventive Medicine49(5 Suppl 3), S230–S240. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.07.019

Chatterjee, S., Khunti, K. & Davies, M. J. (2017). Type 2 diabetes. The Lancet, 389(10085), 2239–2251. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(17)30058-2

Edington, D. W., Schultz, A. B., Pitts, J. S. & Camilleri, A. (2015). The future of health promotion in the 21st century: A focus on the working population. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine10(4), 242–252. DOI: 10.1177/1559827615605789

Harris, J., Croot, L., Thompson, J. & Springett, J. (2016). How stakeholder participation can contribute to systematic reviews of complex interventions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health70(2), 207–214. DOI: 10.1136/jech-2015-205701

Huo, L., Magliano, D. J., Rancière, F., Harding, J. L., Nanayakkara, N., Shaw, J. E. & Carstensen, B. (2018). Impact of age at diagnosis and duration of type 2 diabetes on mortality in Australia 1997–2011. Diabetologia. DOI:10.1007/s00125-018-4544-z 

Kaur, M., Prinja, S. & Kumar, R. (2015). Evaluating the performance of health promotion interventions. The Indian Journal of Medical Research142(2), 109–112. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.164213

Kautzky-Willer, A., Harreiter, J. & Pacini, G. (2016). Sex and gender differences in risk, pathophysiology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Reviews37(3), 278–316. DOI: 10.1210/er.2015-1137

Kisling, L. A. & Das, J. (2020). Prevention Strategies. Treasure Island, United Kingdom: StatPearls Publishing.

Majid, U., Kim, C., Cako, A. & Gagliardi, A. R. (2018). Engaging stakeholders in the co-development of programs or interventions using Intervention Mapping: A scoping review. PloS One13(12), 1-18. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209826

Ogbeiwi, O. (2018). General concepts of goals and goal-setting in healthcare: A narrative review. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-18. DOI: 10.1017/jmo.2018.11.

Patton S. R. (2015). Adherence to glycemic monitoring in diabetes. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology9(3), 668–675. DOI: 10.1177/1932296814567709

Phillips, A. (2016). Improving self-management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nursing Standard, 30(19), 52–60. DOI:10.7748/ns.30.19.52.s44 

Sami, W., Ansari, T., Butt, N. S. & Hamid, M. (2017). Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences11(2), 65–71.

Siegel, K. R., Ali, M. K., Zhou, X., Ng, B. P., Jawanda, S., Proia, K. & Zhang, P. (2020). Cost-effectiveness of interventions to manage diabetes: Has the evidence changed since 2008? Diabetes Care, 43(7), 1557–1592. DOI: 10.2337/dci20-0017 

Van Smoorenburg, A. N., Hertroijs, D. F. L., Dekkers, T., Elissen, A. M. J. & Melles, M. (2019). Patients’ perspective on self-management: Type 2 diabetes in daily life. BMC Health Services Research, 19(605), 1-8. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4384-7 

Yanai, H., Adachi, H., Masui, Y., Katsuyama, H., Kawaguchi, A., Hakoshima, M., Waragai, Y., Harigae, T., Hamasaki, H. & Sako, A. (2018). Exercise therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes: A narrative review. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research10(5), 365–369. DOI: 10.14740/jocmr3382w

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