• Subject Name : Nursing

Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences - Answer 1

Social Problem

The social problem being addressed in the research is the initial experiences of the healthcare workers during the outbreak of the coronavirus disease. In 2019, when the outbreak of the Coronavirus has affected most of the regions in the Hubei, China, at the initial phases, the healthcare system was not impacted as most of the healthcare workers were not detected with any signs of infectious disease and could provide extended care to the patients affected with due to the virus. The evidence has been linked to the studies showing a minimum correlation between the experiences combating the virus outbreak and steps to control the COVID-19 that has not been publicly published. But, it is necessary to document and record the experiences of such health-care providers at the initial phases of the outbreak.

Research Questions

During the early stages of the COVID 19 outbreak if the healthcare workers were impacted, based on the experiences shared.

Link in between the social problem and the research problem

The social problem and the research problem link helps to note how the experiences of the healthcare workers were during the initial phases. Though the studies have published has not recorded any valuable findings of the healthcare experiences at an early stage, yet as the healthcare workers were the first point of contact while curing the COVID patient, there would have been a likely the consequences on the physical and mental health of the physicians and the nurses. In 2019, at the early stages, as the outbreak has risen, there was an intensive work volume, which has caused a determining impact on the overall health-care providers. Not only the healthcare professional were showing resilience, but due to the extended and odd working hours has caused the spirit of professional dedication to provide the long term solution to patient care (Sprague, 2017). By providing comprehensive support and safeguarding the interest of the wellbeing of health-care providers. it was necessary to take adequate steps to provide the long term solution. Through the regular and intensive training to overcome the crisis time, the healthcare workers were prepared to handle the situation swiftly (Tolley, 2016).

Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences - Answer 2

The paradigms of the research adopted through qualitative study use an empirical phenomenological approach. The role of the nurses and physicians while being recruited during the outbreak time, in the highly affected areas and the designated hospitals, has shown prominent reasons in verifying the spirit of the healthcare workers who largely work continuously and dedicatedly to provide quality services and best care to the patients. The author has provided the paradigm as providing examples from the patient's experience such as “fully responsible for the well being -'spirity of the duty’”. The important role of the healthcare workers during the crisis time was to adhere to the professional duties and to provide the volunteer duties to ease the situation. Nurses also play a crucial role in providing intensive care and also by obligating the activities daily. The second concern is the challenges faced by working in the odd hours, were impacted with the high volume of the patients and it was a totally a new context Subsequently due to the high workloads and they faced the repercussion effects of facing exhaustion, experiencing the protective gear, and also becoming prone to the infections by feeling helpless (Rosenthal, 2016). The author has also shown evidence of the healthcare workers experiencing turmoil, high stress, and also hazardous experiences to treat the patients efficiently and ensuring quality services. The author has conducted a qualitative study that has integrated the empirical phenomenological and further to evaluate the effect it is the snowball sampling. The next category is of the “resilience that was faced and the challenges”. The important role fo the healthcare workers to step up and understand the social problem and provide support unconditionally, without compromising on professional behavior. The strategies were the self-management strategies and it was an important step to cope up with the given situation. Additionally through in the transcendence experienced during the crisis time. The paradigm adopted was the qualitative and noting the healthcare experiences at the time of crises. It was done through the extensive training and with the necessary steps to prepare the healthcare workers to maintain the efficacy in crisis management

Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences - Answer 3

The human ethics research plays a central role while conducting the research and for this, the author has taken the informed consent from the participants to include in his findings. We did a qualitative study through telephone interviews (Hammarberg 2016). The author has gathered the empirical phenomenological approach and has even provided in-depth information of the healthcare workers, especially those who at the initial stages were not impacted and did not encounter the infections. Due to the distressed times, the healthcare workers who were made to work in the designated places experienced the infectious disease while providing quality services to the most affected areas in China i.e. Hubei. The author has also focused on the human participants that have ensured to provide ethically acceptable ways in accordance to follow the relevant standards. During the research, the author has shown a remarkable acceptances to the principles which are the to minimize the risk of harm, to get the informed consent, by protecting the means of the anonymity clause, and abiding by the confidentiality element, to avoid any unethical and the malpractices and to also provide accurate steps for the rights to withdraw.

The author purposely used the phenomenological research as his focus was only to take the experiences of the population. The author has also mentioned the ethics approval taken from the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and explicitly provided the goals of the research and the questions. The research was on the basis of the key study and it was the voluntary approach used, such as the entire aim of the study was detailed, explained, and even taken the oral informed consent while obtaining the information through the telephone interview. The author has also abided by the confidentiality clause, by referring the physician experience by the name of P1, P2, etc and even for the nurses, he has referred to the N1, N2, etc. Any personal identification or any transcripts which can verify the patient information ahs completely been eliminated. The audio recordings are protected, documented, and encrypted to avoid any compromised nature of the information. The author has obligated and abided by the Standards protocols of the Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines.

Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences - Answer 4

The data collection techniques were qualitative and it used the snow sampling method. The techniques of the data collection method involved the phone interview method and using the qualitative study by including the empirical phenomenological approach. Nurses and physicians have been identified from the five COVID-19 designated hospitals that belong from the Hubei province and have also been identified with the purpose of initially involved in the early stages. They were part of the participants actively engaged with the sharing experiences and the information was kept hidden. The methodology was of the semi-structured and through the in-depth interview initiated by the telephone. In the initial stages and were working for the extended hours, there involvement in the nd snowball sampling. They participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews by telephone from the period of Feb 10 to Feb 15, 2020 (Liu, 2020). The interviews were done based on the Interviews that have been transcribed verbatim and also by integrating the Haase’s adaptation that involved with the Colaizzi’s phenomenological method. Through the active participants that have been recruited were through the initial involvement during the phases of the outbreak, also have gone through the experience and can fulfill the research objective were identified. It was done through the snowball sampling. The physicians or nurses that have been only been catering to the original departments and they also have to provide direct care and even be involved in the treatment for patients that had experienced the COVID-19 that have been eligible. The use of the sample size was also involved with the predetermined data saturation—and it is also one of the identified points that have to include the new themes that have taken the participants’ experiences has accounted (Liu, 2020). The target five participants have also included the five participants and they have also been part of one of the two interviewers and it also involved the rest participants to be approached with snowball sampling. Variation was also included in the years of work experience, including the number of support days, and also how much of the participants of the hospital of employment that have been considered with the diversity of the experiences while taking care of caring for the COVID 19 patients (Santiago-Delefosse, 2016).

Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences - Answer 5

The research findings included the nine nurses and involved with the four physicians, included with the three theme categories that have been emerged through the in-depth findings of the data analysis. The first theme has been included in the response of the fully responsible part of the patients' wellbeing and it is also involved with the active line of ‘following the duty’”. The active involvement of the health-care providers that have been actively been involved in the voluntary part of the best care that has actively involved In taking care of the patients. The role of the nurses also has played an important role to provide the active intensive care and also involved in every daily assisting part of the activities that have been involved in every daily living. In the second theme, that has involved in identifying the key challenges and how the hospital works that have been involved in taking care (Sprague, 2017). Through the everyday contextual taking care, extending hours, and also working in the odd hours, during the crisis time, has taken a toll over the healthcare workers. The healthcare workers not only felt exhausted hours and also have to work with the utmost safety, assurity, and providing quality care. The hospital workers also felt powerless and even helpless, due to the extended hours and have to continuously abide by the duty of care and to maintain professionalism (Liu, 2020). The hospital workers while providing the care also have to ensure, that they are abiding by the safety practices, not getting infected, and also providing safety and surety. The health-care providers have to ensure, they are providing the duties under stressful conditions. The third theme was the "resilience amid challenges" and for this, it was important to also extend with the sources of social support and to provide self-management strategies and also aim in how to cope with any situation. It was important to provide unique transcendence and also to experience the best abilities, that can help to attain a positive framework. The healthcare workers have to also provide comprehensive care and support for the overall wellbeing of the healthcare workers.

References for Quality of Qualitative Research in The Health Sciences

Hammarberg, K., Kirkman, M., & de Lacey, S. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human reproduction, 31(3), 498-501.

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. SAGE Publications Limited.

Liu, Q., Luo, D., Haase, J. E., Guo, Q., Wang, X. Q., Liu, S., ... & Yang, B. X. (2020). The experiences of health-care providers during the COVID-19 crisis in China: a qualitative study. The Lancet Global Health.

Rosenthal, M. (2016). Qualitative research methods: Why, when, and how to conduct interviews and focus groups in pharmacy research. Currents in pharmacy teaching and learning, 8(4), 509-516.

Santiago-Delefosse, M., Gavin, A., Bruchez, C., Roux, P., & Stephen, S. L. (2016). Quality of qualitative research in the health sciences: Analysis of the common criteria present in 58 assessment guidelines by expert users. Social Science & Medicine, 148, 142-151.

Sprague, C., Scanlon, M. L., & Pantalone, D. W. (2017). Qualitative research methods to advance research on health inequities among previously incarcerated women living with HIV in Alabama. Health Education & Behavior, 44(5), 716-727.

Tolley, E. E., Ulin, P. R., Mack, N., Robinson, E. T., & Succop, S. M. (2016). Qualitative methods in public health: a field guide for applied research. John Wiley & Sons.

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