• Subject Name : Nursing

Citizenship, Beneficence, and Informed Consent


  1. Purposive sampling- This can be a good method, as purposive sampling helps the researcher to have a good control on the research, rather than being on the mercy of any bias of selection, based on pre-existing groups (Etikan, 2016).
  2. Grounded theory- When used in its most abstract form, grounded theory approach to analyze the data, can help in deriving all explanations related to the research study. This is a good use, as one might reflect upon new findings, apart from prior set theoretical point of view (Wiesche, 2017).
  3. Triangulation- The concept of triangulation helps in addressing to issue of internal validity. It makes use of more than one methodical approach of data collection, which makes it more useful approach to answer all of the research questions pertaining to the research study (Natow, 2020). It can also be deemed as a feasible method to combine with the observational field work and in interviews or focus groups.


Ethical principles should also be taken into account while performing any research. These principles can help in preventing harm from the point of view of following pointers:

  1. Beneficence- This helps in promoting ding good for the participants (Mangual, 2016).
  2. Non-malfeasance- This helps in ensuring no harm is subjected to the participants.
  3. Anonymity and confidentially- This principle allows the participant’s information to stay under cover and not revealed at any point in the study. As most of the researches involve collecting personal information, participants prefer their identity to be not disclosed at any time (Martela, 2018).
  4. Avoiding deceptive practices- The participants should always be kept aware on the progress of the research. Any advancements and updates made on the study during its conduction, should be updated to the participants. This helps in keeping them in loop and avoiding any confusion.
  5. Right of withdraw- The participant should have the right to withdraw themselves from the study at any point of the time, if and when they feel uncomfortable or not have the wish to carry further. This action should not have any implication on the participants and thus, reducing the chances of risk or harm to them.

Informed consent can be considered as one of the main and crucial step of research study. This is done in sync with the ethical codes and regulations of the research study. This step helps in providing adequate information to the participant regarding the study, which helps them in making a sound and precise decision, whether they wish to take part in the study or not (Convie, 2020). The same applies to this qualitative study as well. It also helps in avoiding any uncalled-for confusion during the conduction of research study.

Principle of confidentiality can be maintained by keeping the identity of the participant under covers. This should be followed all throughout the research study is conducted (Kamanzi, 2019). This not only includes keeping the participant’s name under cover, but also keeping all other details hidden, such as their personal address, family details, and occupational details and so on.

Reflection of Qualitative Descriptive Research Approach

For this particular study two main sampling methods can be used. These two optimal methods can be purposive and convenience sampling method (Naderifar, 2017). These two sampling methods are found to be best aligning with the qualitative study design. For any qualitative study research question, these sampling techniques can either be used in conjunction with each other or either one of the methods can be opted from both of them.

For the data collection method three main forms can be used for qualitative descriptive study design. These methods are namely, observational method, case study method and survey method. Observational method used in this study will allow the researcher to understand and acknowledge the behaviour of the participant in detail, without having a direct input from them. Case study method will enable the researcher to study a larger group of younger individuals under the age of 16 years. Survey method is one of the most commonly used methods of data collection. This method will help in collecting raw primary data, which can then be used for further analysis (McMahon, 2018).

Following will be the ethical considerations for this study:

  1. As the participants are below the age of 18 years, informed consent will be taken from their guardians or parents.
  2. The participants will be guided about the methodology before commencing with any activity related to the study.
  3. The identity of the participants will be kept under covers at all times. This will be followed even after finally commencing the study as well.
  4. Only the components relevant to the study will be measured and rest all other aspects will be remained untouched.
  5. The participants will be duly informed on regular basis, on the progress made on the research. They will also be made aware of any modifications done during the study.
  6. It will be ensured that all participants take part in the study on a voluntary basis and they will have a right to leave the study anytime as per their own wish.

References for Qualitative Descriptive Research Approach

Convie, L. J., Carson, E., McCusker, D., McCain, R. S., McKinley, N., Campbell, W. J., ... & Clarke, M. (2020). The patient and clinician experience of informed consent for surgery: A systematic review of the qualitative evidence. BMC Medical Ethics21(1), 1-17.

Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics5(1), 1-4.

Kamanzi, A., & Romania, M. (2019). Rethinking confidentiality in qualitative research in the era of big data. American Behavioral Scientist63(6), 743-758.

Mangual Figueroa, A. (2016). Citizenship, beneficence, and informed consent: The ethics of working in mixed-status families. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education29(1), 66-85.

Martela, F., & Riekki, T. J. (2018). Autonomy, competence, relatedness, and beneficence: A multicultural comparison of the four pathways to meaningful work. Frontiers in Psychology9, 1157.

McMahon, S. A., & Winch, P. J. (2018). Systematic debriefing after qualitative encounters: An essential analysis step in applied qualitative research. BMJ Global Health3(5).

Naderifar, M., Goli, H., & Ghaljaie, F. (2017). Snowball sampling: A purposeful method of sampling in qualitative research. Strides in Development of Medical Education14(3), 1-6.

Natow, R. S. (2020). The use of triangulation in qualitative studies employing elite interviews. Qualitative Research20(2), 160-173.

Wiesche, M., Jurisch, M. C., Yetton, P. W., & Krcmar, H. (2017). Grounded theory methodology in information systems research. MIS Quarterly41(3), 685-701.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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