Principles of Project Management

Opinion Post

Most affected area

The project lifecycle is the sequence of different phases through which the project undergoes from the commencement to closure (Varajão, 2016). It rather provides the framework of managing the project, which includes pre-project activities, planning, project launch, control, monitoring and final delivery (Hermano, & Martín-Cruz, 2019). The PMBoK areas and the PML are interlinked, as the stages of PML addresses different phases of the PMBoK. For instance, the very first facet of PML is the pre-project activities, where the commitment is established between the clients and the Project Manager to start the project. Project charter, deliverables, stakeholder identification and team development and selection are included in the phase. Thereby, the areas of project integration, scope management, communication, stakeholder management and human resource management are inevitable to be managed in the phase of project cycle (Fashina, Abdilahi, & Fakunle, 2020). Similarly, in the control and monitoring phase, the quality and risk areas of PMBoK are consulted. It becomes clear that the PMBoK and PML highly interact with each other. It is evident in different lifecycle stage; the project managers put stress on different areas. For instance, when the project manager is in the third phase of the PML, which is generally project execution, the project manager manages workers, distribute the information to the project stakeholders, assign clear responsibilities, motivates the team, manages and controls project budget and time, execute the project deliverables. The management of workers is associated to human resource management, engaging stakeholders is categorised under stakeholder and communication management, managing budget and time are under the knowledge areas of cost and time respectively. The achievement of deliverables within the allocated budget and time is associated to the knowledge area of scope management. Thereby, most of the areas of the PMBoK are affected by the project life cycle, however, the scope management areas is affected the most.

The project lifecycle also differs with the type of project. As per Teoh, Zain, & Lee, (2020) the project life cycle are categorised as different types: the predictive, the incremental and iterative and the adaptive. In the plan-driven life cycle, there are three constraints: project scope, time and cost. The determination of project scope is inevitable in the considered lifecycle. However, in the incremental life cycle, the project scope, one of the PMBoK areas is not determined detailed ahead of the time (Toljaga-Nikolic, Petrovic, & Mihic, 2017). In case of the project lifecycles of the IT projects, rapid changed take place always (Tariq, et al., 2020). Though high level project scope is always important for all the projects, the determination of scope, details, time of developing scopes change with project life cycles. Thereby, it could be stated that the project scope is the specific PMBoK area, which is drastically changed and affected by the PML. In the conventional approaches of software development projects, the project follows the waterfall methodology, where one phase is project design, and the project deliverable is system design document. The project signoffs are required before starting with the next phase of the project. Therefore, the project methodology is altered, and so the project scope. In my view, the PML, being an inevitable aspect of the project methodology has tremendous impacts of the project management knowledge areas. However, the project scope is the area which is highly affected by the same.


The development of performance indicators (KPIs) and comparison of outputs against the KPIs can allow examining the alignment PML and PMBoK implementation. Regular project updates, budget monitoring, task progress update in each phase makes the project more effective.

Peer Response

In response to Carlos Sander’s Discussion Post, it could be said that the arguments are well presented with the effective use of literary works. The duties and responsibilities of the project managers are agreeable. I fully agree with the claim that the Project Lifecycle Managementuses the project management knowledge areas and creates integration and collaboration with the procedures. The support of the PML is crucial for the success of the project. My opinion post also resembles with the arguments of the considered post regarding the importance of PML. The post has got my support in terms of setting the KPIs to manage the project effectively throughout the entire life cycle. However, I find that there is no such clear conclusion regarding the aspect of the knowledge area to be mostly affected by the project lifecycle. The discussion represents that the whole knowledge area is impacted by the PML. However, my opinion slightly differs from the same. I think, the scope management is the specific knowledge area which is affected the most. This is because the methodology as well as the phases of lifecycle changed from project to project. The lifecycle or method of the construction project is not as same as of the IT projects. Thereby, the planning, and scopes differ. To end up, the use of example of the mechanical engineering project strengthens the argument of the considered post.

References for Impact of Scope Changes on Project Plan

Fashina, A. A., Abdilahi, S. M., & Fakunle, F. F. (2020). Examining the challenges associated with the implementation of project scope management in telecommunication projects in Somaliland. PM World Journal. Available at

Hermano, V., & Martín-Cruz, N. (2019). Expanding the Knowledge on Project Management Standards: A Look into the PMBOK® with Dynamic Lenses. AEIPRO 2017, July 2016.

Tariq, S., Ahmad, N., Ashraf, M. U., Alghamdi, A. M., & Alfakeeh, A. S. (2020). Measuring the Impact of Scope Changes on Project Plan Using EVM. IEEE Access8, 154589-154613. DOI 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3018169

Teoh, C. H., Zain, Z. M., & Lee, C. C. (2020). Custom Project Life Cycle Characteristics Study and Identification for Effective Manufacturing Company Transformation. Asian Journal of Research in Business and Management2(2), 23-30. DOI: 10.5220/0006318603700378

Toljaga-Nikolic, D., Petrovic, D., & Mihic, M. (2017, September). How to choose the appropriate project management approach?. In 2017 12th International Scientific and Technical Conference on Computer Sciences and Information Technologies (CSIT) (Vol. 2, pp. 1-5). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/STC-CSIT.2017.8099448

Varajão, J. (2016). Success Management as a PM knowledge area–work-in-progress. Procedia Computer Science100, 1095-1102. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.09.256

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