Research Proposal



Research Rationale 

Aim of the research 

Research objectives 

Research Questions 

Literature Review 





The aim of this research is to find out about plastic pollution and how it is affecting the world at large. Plastic pollution has become a global concern and it is taking over the health and safety of the entire population and killing animals, birds and marine life everyday. The link between culture and international campaign are much related. To initiate a public relations campaign in a particular country is essential to have an understanding of the culture before starting the PR. In the given case, the campaign is related to creating awareness about plastic pollution and how it is affecting underdeveloped countries like Pakistan. Targeting a low economic country like Pakistan, the public relations campaigns will try to create awareness as well as utilise elements of cultural communication. The country in question is known for manufacturing more than 30 million plastic wastes coming out of billions of plastic bags which are manually manufactured (, 2018).

The aim is to look at cultural differences and the role they have to play to influence better communication and interaction so that the people become aware of the ultimate aim of the public relations campaign. The waste that are produced in Pakistan and non-biodegradable which can affect the sewage system I'm and also clog drains. In the given condition, a non-governmental private Organization, WWF Pakistan, is taking the initiative which will try to begin the campaign to initiate more awareness. The role of this research will be too you look at the shift in international public relations and what kind of culture should be targeted for this campaign to succeed. The cultural dimensions shall be researched by the researcher in this research so that methods of recycling and cleaning the pollution can be initiated. 

Research Rationale

With the help of globalization and commercialization, the boundaries between countries are diminishing and as a result of that countries are becoming more open to interact with one another two mutually benefit one another. This paper will show the initiative and action taken by can non-governmental organization to make Pakistan cleaner and for everybody to live in. More sustainable measures should be initiated by this organization to give more solution to the people of Pakistan as well as the government to solve this problem. Purpose of linking culture and history with an International Public relations campaign is to understand how far cultural dimensions have a role to play. The reason my culture is emphasized so much in case of public relations campaign is because the different methods of communication and awareness programs are done keeping in mind the cultural limitations of that particular country. No countries are similar in there intercultural and cross cultural settings and that is why the purpose of press releases as well as media advertisement. To understand cultural dimensions, the Hofstede model shall be studied to understand the differences between intercultural and cross cultural settings so that more awareness programs can be initiated keeping in mind the culture of Pakistan.

The Circuit of Culture will also try to understand the relevance of cultural dimensions as well as implications so that the reactions people can we studies and understood. Culture of Pakistan should be studied in detail to have a very good idea about the white approach that should be taken by the public relations campaign. Not only the different elements of culture, but also the cultural identity should be studied so that every individual stick approach can be initiated to get a deeper understanding of the culture. The paper will also do research on history as well as democracy of Pakistan and the form of governance with respect to the political history. The public relations are concerned with the laws and regulations and the most important place of public relations campaign at the media and internet which have a very important role to play in understanding the reactions of the people and how far they can participate. 

Aim of the research

The aim of this research will be to find out the International Public relations campaign in the light of addressing consumption and utility of plastics. 

Research objectives

  1. To find out the cultural implications on public relations to deal with the pollution campaign that is taking place in Pakistan.

  2. To understand the idea of global convergence as opposed to the international diversity approaches.

  3. To study the cultural implications for finding out proper solutions to the pollution campaign scenario. 

  4. To analyze the role of International media as well as politicians in understanding the impact of this Public relations campaign to create more awareness water pollution in Pakistan.

Research Questions

  1. Are there any differences between global Public relations as opposed to International Public relations?

  2. What should be the right approach in tackling questions of pollution in Pakistan?

  3. What is the role played by culture in finding out the implications of public relations in Pakistan?

  4. Are the elements of cultural identity and cultural dimension important in understanding public relations?

Literature Review

Culture plays a very important and essential role in effectuating the power distance as well as the drivers in a particular culture. The country chosen for this particular study is Pakistan and the society as well as individuals should be studied together. The most important elements to be considered in understanding the cultural dimensions is the fact that no individuals in a society are treated to be equals. Culture is the most important driving factor to understand the differences and similarities in a society and what should be the right approach to get the basic understanding of the implication of the campaign better. 

Individualism v Collectivism

A society is made up of individuals who found the entire society as a whole and these individuals are not similar in their ways of life (Curtin & Gaither, 2007). The individuals in a society showcase the personal attitude of the people to give a dimension to the culture. it is measured by the degree of interdependence that a society will maintain within itself among the members. A society can both be Individualistic or collective by the way they function and look at their goals. Pakistan is a collective society and they believe in being in a group to look at their goals and targets as a collective achievement. The country is very loyal in the brotherhood and creating relationships and therefore the campaign should look at addressing the groups of people together to have a better reach of their campaign. Since the campaign is concerned with public relations and pollution, the element of the individual people in terms of being linked to a group will play a very important role. 

Uncertainty avoidance

This this is another way of understanding the dimensions of uncertainty in a particular society and how they are willing to deal with it in the future. It is very important for every society to have a way of understanding what the future holds for them and what will be the implication of a particular campaign (Morley, 2002). Any country which is very threatened by unknown factor will not be able to grasp the element of an International Public relations campaign because they will look at the fire reaching consequences of the same. In situations where a country is ranking very low on uncertainty avoidance, it becomes easier to implement new ideas because they are not started by angry with me. Pakistan has a high preference for avoiding uncertainty because they have very rigid beliefs and thoughts. Pakistan is very orthodox in their ideas and behavior and therefore they do not want to be threatened and anxious of any new campaign policy. In the light of the high score of Pakistan on uncertainty avoidance, it is very important to not change the course of the campaign and stick to the basic awareness of reducing plastic pollution (.Mazanec et al., 2015) 

Power distance

The power hierarchy in a society is very important because the individuals in a society cannot be equal and there has to be a rank in their higher. Inequalities within a society determine the power distance and the extent to which the powerful members of the society can dominate the less powerful people (Bakir et al 2015). The power distance rank of Pakistan is very optimum and therefore it is very difficult to understand the power distance of Pakistan with relations to cultural implications. In general the society of Pakistan is very hierarchical and the powerful members of the society have a way of terminating the poor and the less powerful. The campaign therefore should try to target the private organizations in companies who have most see in the country. 

Masculinity v Femininity

A masculine society is one where everybody is driven by competition and the intention to achieve more success. The cultural dimensions Framework first to understand a masculine society as one where there is more success and competition. On the other hand, a feminine society is more about giving case and being concerned with quality of life. Pakistan ranks very intermediate and their force do not have any emphasis on competition and also it is not concerned with having regard to a good quality of life (Khlif, 2016). Masculine society will have no regard for individual achievements and therefore the public relations campaign should give more emphasis to collective rights everybody will be affected if the pollution is not controlled. 

Long term orientation

The long term orientation of a country is how far they are willing to look at their future achievements and what can be done to honor traditions as well as societal change that will affect the peoples. It is therefore very important to understand that Pakistan has a look out for long term orientation and as a result of this the public relations campaign should focus on sustainable development and preserving the environment. 

Circuit of Culture

Circuit is culture promotes people to understand how philosophy and culture are interlinked and the history of a country will have a very important role to play in shaping the future. Democracy and history of a country are essential factors, and as such good governance should be taken into consideration in looking at the relation between (Schmidt, 2016). Public relations and an ethnocentric model. Circuit of culture is more concerned with the postmodern intellectual relations and how there has been a paradigm shift in what an organisation can or cannot do. Creating objective and neutral society is a new method of promoting world peace. As per the data and statistics, it is becoming increasingly clear that Public relations will try to create more interactive facilities that will try to try out any kind of negativity from the country. reason why culture is given the maximum emphasis in this particular study is because countries are very different in how they will respond to a campaign and therefore idea is to who make the campaign reach out to a bigger audience. 


The method of research for this particular study shall be by relying on secondary sources. Articles and journals which are already present in the public domain shall be referred to gain a better understanding of the implications of culture on an International Public relations campaign. By studying the cultural dimensions as well as a circuit of culture, understanding of the culture differences and similarities of Pakistan can be traced. To understand plastic pollution campaign in Pakistan, it is essential to know about the theories of culture as well as have a better understanding of the culture and governance that is prevalent in Pakistan. 


The research shall be conducted to understand how far culture is important to drive a public relations campaign to success. Plastic pollution is a grave concern and as a result of that this new campaign shall try to create more awareness and help in the sustainable development of the earth. 


Bakir, A., Blodgett, J. G., Vitell, S. J., & Rose, G. M. (2015). A preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of Hofstede’s cross cultural dimensions. In Proceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 226-232). Springer, Cham.

Curtin, P., & Gaither, T. (2007). International Public Relations: Negotiting Culture, Identity and Power. California: Sage Publications.

Khlif, H. (2016). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in accounting research: a review. Meditari Accountancy Research, 24(4), 545-573.

Mazanec, J. A., Crotts, J. C., Gursoy, D., & Lu, L. (2015). Homogeneity versus heterogeneity of cultural values: An item-response theoretical approach applying Hofstede's cultural dimensions in a single nation. Tourism Management, 48, 299-304.

Morley, M. (2002). How to Manage Your Global Reputation: A Guide to the Dynamics of International Public Relations. New York: New York University Press. (2019). Thomas Kuhn (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Apr. 2019].

profile, V. (2019). Global PR and cultural dimensions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Apr. 2019].

Schmidt, T. (2016). The circuit of culture: A model for journalism history. CM Communication and Media, 11(36), 71-88. (2018, August 16). ‘Beat plastic pollution’ campaign concludes. Retrieved from

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