• Subject Name : Nursing

Indigenous Health Program Evaluation Design and Methods in Australia



Social determinant of health.

Health Area.

Health Plan.


Introduction to Oak Valley Indigenous Health

Oak Valley is the principal organization of a backward reserved community called Maralinga Tjarutja Aboriginal Council (AC) Local Government Area (LGA), South Australia. The general population varies, yet a year’s review definite around 128 people, for the most part-Aboriginal. It is approximately 128 kilometres (80 mi) NNW of the main Maralinga region. As the name suggests, the area is occupied with desert oak trees. The Great Victoria Desert surrounds the valley lying at the southern edge.

It was developed in 1984 withholds gave as compensation to the dispossession of the Maralinga people from their properties following the British nuclear tests which happened some place in the scope of 1956 and 1963. The perils related to living in a domain contaminated by plutonium, even after the cleanup has been a basic concern.

During the 1950s, seven bombs were tried at Maralinga in the south-west Australian outback. The consolidated power of the weapons multiplied that of the bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima in World War Two. Some revealed the blazes of the impacts being brilliant to such an extent that they could see the bones of their fingers, similar to x-beams as they squeezed against their appearances. The greater part a century on, the vast majority here still view Maralinga as a dim section in British Australian history.

Social Determinant of Health

The Department of Health is welcoming entries from associations and people and social determinants of Indigenous and Aboriginal people’s wellbeing.

Health results for people are the consequence of a perplexing association between natural components and the social and social conditions which shape individuals' lives. These work as the two boundaries and empowering influences on wellbeing and social and passionate prosperity.

Somewhere in the range of 32% and one section belonging to the prosperity gap among Indigenous Australians and non-Indigenous people is inferable from contrasts in social determinants of prosperity (Indigenous as well as Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2014). This suggests a huge aspect of the work to improve prosperity uneven characters and variations lies past the prosperity division. These determinants incorporate (yet are not restricted to) - Association with family, network, nation, language and culture, Bigotry, Youth advancement, training and youth, Business and pay, Lodging, condition and framework, Collaboration with government frameworks and higher administrations, Legal implications, health benefits, Food safety.

Upgrades have been picked up in Indigenous wellbeing, however, we are not shutting the hole – the time has come to turn consideration past wellbeing determinants as we make the following stride on our excursion. Improving the medical care framework to give sufficient consideration when individuals are unwell is basic; however, does little to keep them from getting unwell in any case. Significant reasons for death and infection, for example, coronary illness, diabetes or malignant growth have their birthplaces in the early long stretches of life, in continuous and combined social and social stressors. The connects to social causes are even more clear when taking a gander at sudden passing because of injury, harming and self-destruction. We could speak more about the issues; however, we'd preferably talk about arrangements. The criticism we get from these online entries will help to: distinguish explicit activities right now giving great results to Indigenous people group and think about alternatives for more extensive usage; recognize need territories for consideration intending to the social determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’s health; recognize expected changes and holes in Commonwealth strategy and projects pointed toward lessening the incongruities in the field of prosperity and medical care among Indigenous individuals and non-Indigenous individuals; think about choices to improve levels of coordination and cooperation of existing endeavours at the neighbourhood, state and Commonwealth level. This data will assist us with recognizing activities that are having a positive effect and consider ways we can draw on these models, to improve coordination and joint effort among government and non-government organizations at the neighbourhood, state/an area and Commonwealth levels. Entries will be thought of and might be cited or referred to as a major aspect of a plan on the Socio-cultural Determinants of Indigenous Health. This would take care of the future cycles of the Implementation Plan for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Plan of the year 2018-2023.

Health Area

Bias or racial discrimination is the major reason that allows the decline of an individual’s mental and physical state of wellbeing. In the review of the year 2003, 53 evaluations in the US observed that the mental health of children and young adults of the backward and exploited community has been deteriorating. Eight out of eleven evaluations found associations between the increased cases of hypertension in the Afro-Americans along with racism. Very few assessments are carried on the effect of bias on the quality of Indigenous people in Australia, in spite of the way that masters agree that an association with the US considers is normal. Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey 2001-02 (WAACHS) is one such examination. It detailed than 22% of the Aboriginal kids under the age of 12 suffered from racial discrimination in the past a half year. This was related to excessive smoking, marijuana use and liquor utilization in the under-age kids.

Racism gives rise to issues related to mental health. Kids and even adults may face significant issues with racism. It humiliates the person to the core. It could depress the individual clinically. It harms the person first mentally and their mental state begins to take a toll over their physical health as well. Depression and under confidence may lead to extreme introvert attitude resulting in a decline in the intelligent quotient. Individuals may get addicted to drugs for escaping reality and suffer serious health issues. Children and adults indulge themselves heinous crimes. They get involved in criminal activities end up their entire lives behind the act of laws.

It has been stated and observed that the indigenous community as a whole is progressing while, there is still the most number of segments, the government must work upon to improve their health-related issues. Every 2 out of 5 individuals are mentally depressed or unpleasant. This makes the entire society vulnerable and a possible victim of their nourishment.

The physicians and professionals too fail to give the indigenous community people their share of honour and respect. Thus, the community individuals get racially harassed and discriminated in the workplace and at the hospitals. This makes them shut to themselves and the disclosure to any disease or health problem is usually untold.

Health Plan

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is one of Australia's pinnacle bodies that help wellbeing and clinical examination; create wellbeing guidance for the Australian people group, wellbeing experts, and governments; and give exhortation on moral conduct in medical care and in the direction of wellbeing and clinical exploration. One of NHMRC's previous activities was a distribution entitled Cultural Competency in Health: A guide for strategy, associations and cooperation. This guide advanced the instructing of social skill for all wellbeing experts despite the fact that unmistakably wellbeing proficient training had not embraced the suggestions longer than 10 years after the fact. As most, if not all, wellbeing callings require a four-year certification that prompts enlistment, Universities Australia (UA) made an approach for tertiary organizations, planning to diminish wellbeing variations by inserting competency-based educational program.

New awareness campaigns must be exercised. The government must urge the need to rule out the possibility of any racial discrimination and lead to a better environment. The campaign must focus the issues and problems faced by the community and bring the reality to ground.

Better health sessions must be provided to the community people for better assistance. The health staff must be trained and educated more ethically and take strict actions against racism. Psychological counselling and health therapies must be provided to young adults and every needy individual who has ever suffered racism and has undergone depression or any kind of mental issue.

Conclusion on Oak Valley Indigenous Health

Mental Heath should be considered to be an important issue amongst the population. The Indigenous Australians have suffered discrimination on the basis of caste, creed, color, and other socio-cultural differences. The individuals belonging to the Oak Valley, suffered racists behaviour from the other non-Indigenous people for a prolonged period deteriorating their mental status. The nuclear explosion of the 1950s not only devastated the former living population but also impacted the upcoming generations grossly. Addressing Mental Health must be considered a vital concern. Campaigns for spreading awareness must be carried out. This would not only spread awareness but also provide a platform to the patients and the victims to get counselling. Children and young adults must be monitored properly to hold them from falling prey to any addiction or false practices.

References for Oak Valley Indigenous Health

Lokuge, K., Thurber, K., Calabria, B., Davis, M., McMahon, K., Sartor, L., et al. (2017). Indigenous health program evaluation design and methods in Australia: A systematic review of the evidence. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health

Marmot, M. G. (2017). Dignity, social investment, and the Indigenous health gap. The Medical Journal of Australia,207(1), 20–29

Paradies, Y. (2016). Colonisation, racism, and indigenous health. Journal of Population Research,33(1), 83–96.

Paradies, Y. (2018). Racism and indigenous health. In Oxford research encyclopedia of global public health

Pasila, K., Elo, S., & Kääriäinen, M. (2017). Newly graduated nurses’ orientation experiences: A systematic review of qualitative studies. International Journal of Nursing Studies,71, 16–27

Thompson, G., Talley, N. J., & Kong, K. M. (2017). The health of Indigenous Australians. The Medical Journal of Australia,207(1), 19–20.

Vossler, J. J., & Watts, J. (2017). Educational story as a tool for addressing the framework for information literacy for higher education. Libraries and the Academy,17(3), 529–542.

Walsh, W., & Kangaharan, N. (2016). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular health 2016: Is the gap closing? Heart, Lung and Circulation,25(8), 765–767.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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