There might be many age-related factors that change while many that stay the same depending on what conditions are encountered, in overall prospectus keeping in view Alex case, absorption may stays unaltered in the later adulthood or old age however there might be certain conditions that can lead to cause changes and should be kept in mind and consideration related to age. Age-related alterations can obstruct absorption due to less blood flow reaching towards the tissues of the body and the GI tract and change occurring in gastric PH. Absorption can be affected under the use of many medicines, and effect plasma proteins, blood levels or chronic factors. Distribution is affected by the changes in body composition of the person as it changes with age (van Dijkman & de Jager & Rauwé & Danhof & Della Pasqua, 2018). Decreased tissue and muscle mass with aging as Alex is an 85 years old person and under the effects of medication influences distribution of certain drugs in addition to the distribution of blood flow to organs and tissues. Active uptake towards the tissues is one of the many factors influenced by aging under these medications. Metabolism rate decreases linearly with age and strong medications may cause to support this factor until certain medications for strengthening metabolism like vitamins intakes are used (Sera & Uritsky, 2016). Excretion is one the most important pharmacokinetics in older adults like decreased renal elimination of drugs, it varies from person to person depending upon the type of medication used.
Since Alex uses a number of medications that can cause a bit of side effect and an adverse drug event resulting in an injury from medical intervention to some specific drug, Alex medications are mostly used to treat pain, inflammation or chronic related factors and arthritis. Factors that might increase the risk of adverse drug effect in Alex case are age, multiple drugs, disease state, past history of allergies, genetic factors and large doses. Alex does not possess any allergy history but he needs to keep the factors in mind as age since he is an older adult, he is supposed to take his medication seriously and only take as much amount suggested and whenever suggested (Lavan & Gallagher, 2016). Along with that he is supposed to take rest and proper diet with his medication to help it to work properly and not harm the body with its strong effects. The factors highlighted if dealt properly are likely to decrease the chances of adverse drug affect occurrence. Older adult patients get to experience more adverse drug events than younger since the age factor influences the most and Alex is an older adult of 85 years age (Davies & O'mahony, 2015). Alex smoking habit may also contribute to these events since they cause reduction of drug concentration in blood and cause the patient to suffer inefficiency of medications being used for his treatment.
Alex is currently using a list of medicines that includes aspirin that is used to treat inflammatory conditions like rheumatic fever, pericarditis and conditions related to heart attacks in heart patients. It also is used as a blood thinner that helps in proper working of cardiac muscles and helps to prevent heart attacks. This is used to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. Perindopril is used to treat blood pressure, heart failure or stable coronary artery disease that comes in the form of perindopril erbumine and perindopril arginine. GTN is also used for heart failures, treating high blood pressure, anal fissures also used for treating and preventing chest pain that rises as a result of decreased flow of blood or excessive use of cocaine. Omeprazole is used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcer. In short it is used to treat gastrointestinal or gastroesophageal diseases. Panadol is used to treat pain and fever (Moore & Pollack & Butkerait, 2015). It is used for mild to moderate pain relief. Ibuprofen is used to treat pain, fever and inflammation and conditions like migraines and rheumatoid arthritis. All these medications are enlisted in Alex’s medicines, it is expected that he might suffer from common some side effects of these medications like upset stomach, stomach pain, drowsiness or dizziness. These are not likely to always be suffered but can show since Alex is a regular consumer of these medications.
After going through Alex case study, and analyzing his data and medication and how his disease is dealt, I personally believe that these medicines will help him to deal his conditions that he is facing ulcer to lower leg, pain in the body along with inflammations and infections. But Alex needs to put in some changes in his routine intake as his age requires a greater portion of care and healthier diet along with the timely intake of his medications. I think that he needs a reduction in alcohol intakes as two glass per dinner every night counts to be much more than his body could bare at this age also, he needs to cut down on his smoking as it will only accelerate problem rate for him. Smoking also effects medications used, it can decrease the drug concentration in blood and reduce efficiency leading to inappropriate high dosage modifications. Along with these Alex needs to take proper diet to regulate his body functions and strengthen metabolism rate. Proper diet will help the drugs to dissolve in the body and reach areas where required. Along with this Alex needs to take in account proper resting times with proper sleeping places, like bed instead of a chair, he needs comfortable sleeping position to ease his body. I also recommend that Alex needs to take weekly or regular checkup schedules and discuss his own health downfalls or changes with his physician or consultant to provide with better ways to treat his disease, other than these factors, I conclude that the medication Alex is receiving needs to be checked again keeping his current situation in focus. regular base check up can provide with alterations in his medications and better ways to judge what the patient needs to take in these conditions.
van Dijkman, S. C., de Jager, N. C., Rauwé, W. M., Danhof, M., & Della Pasqua, O. (2018). Effect of age-related factors on the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine and potential implications for maintenance dose optimisation in future clinical trials. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 57(8), 1039-1053.
Sera, L., & Uritsky, T. (2016). Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in older adults and implications for palliative care. Progress in Palliative Care, 24(5), 255-261.
Lavan, A. H., & Gallagher, P. (2016). Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults. Therapeutic advances in drug safety, 7(1), 11-22.
Davies, E. A., & O'mahony, M. S. (2015). Adverse drug reactions in special populations–the elderly. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 80(4), 796-807.
Moore, N., Pollack, C., & Butkerait, P. (2015). Adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with over-the-counter NSAIDs. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 11, 1061.
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