• Subject Name : Nursing

A Covid-19 Health Issue that Has Impacted the Australian Population from A Political, Cultural, and National Perspective

Introduction to Modelling Transmission and Control of The Covid-19 Pandemic in Australia

In Australia, the country runs on Westminster form of government is followed under liberal democracy. During the period of COVID-19, the nation has got achievement in slowing the pace of coronavirus spread in the middle of various other countries. The stable circumstances happened there in Australia due to the amalgamation of national wealth, political participation, geographic isolation, and numerous other factors (ABC, 2020a). Although there are countries like the UK and the USA which have not completely followed this paradigm as they did not follow corporeal estrangement measures in the earlier stages. However, the financial and social impacts are very elevated in Australia and framed a serious risk to the country. By considering the implications of coronavirus disease, Australia has become far much better than other countries. The major effect that has happened is to the susceptible groups that occurred due to communal inequality. Policy development is needed to avoid exacerbating existing inequalities. The article will describe the COVID-19 health matter that has impacted the Australian population from a political, cultural, and national perspective (Rockett, Arnott & Lam et al., 2020).

Political, Social, Geographical, and Cultural Factors Contributing to Lower Number of Deaths in Australia

Based on the reports of statistics, it has been known that around 16 per cent of the Australian population that has been exaggerated is in the age group of above 65 years and 0-1 years(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2019).The infection rate at the national level was 30.30 per cent that was lying in the age group of 60 years and above. In the age group of 0-15 years, 18.7 per cent of the population got contaminated however it was noted that no deaths have occurred. This has raised the point for deliberate for the reopening of schools. All over the rates have risen due to no support to government from the public towards economic and physical distancing measures. While this is a very important point that is the point of debates in post-pandemic recovery.Australia has been blessed with the natural features that has helped in sealing itself from the outer world and prevention from the attack of new sources of the virus. Another factor is the influential response that of public trusts in the terms of competency and trust of the Australian government (Universities Australia, 2020). Australia has remarkable stability within its civil society. Australia worked in COVID times with collective spirit to prevent them from getting attacked by a virus.This has made the efforts victorious in prevention from broadcast related to existing cases. Coronavirus has pulled provided a cause to put aside ideological and emotive considerationsto seek out quality information and advise people according to expertise (United Nations, 2020). The political organizations and commenter’s spunk through the Liberal governing party and imposed strict regulations for lockdown in the country (Rodriguez-Morales, Cardona-Ospina, & Gutiérrez-Ocampo et al., 2020). Australia is run by nonstop cultures of party leadership challenges due to the diversity of population and racism against Asian-Australians to ignorance of some people. From the deadly disease effect, it has been known that Australia has a cooperative spirit that has not been immune to the dreadful conditions of public trust(Prime Minister of Australia, 2020c). The political parties have listened to medical experts and worked accordingly to limit the spread of the virus.The National Cabinet is the initiative that has allowed gauging public forthe scope of reposition and situation of different policies of the government. This is the temporary body that includes state and territory premiers that are designed to overlapjurisdictions, pool resources, and coordinate their responses to give a message for a clear and consistent message.The national cabinet consists of political parties even number of leaders to signal the public that needs to be placed based on pandemic needs and any partisan considerations. The negligence was done in the proper screening of passengers and constituted 10 per cent of Australia’s total virus deaths(Human Rights Commission, 2020). The country however provides good education, health, and services to the public that provides access to people for decent livelihoods and opportunities.

Determinants of Health Affecting Older Men in Covid-19

Determinants of health are the factors that influence the living status of a person who has become injured or ill. The social determinants here include income, employment, social, and education support(Reserve Bank of Australia, 2020a).The Indigenous group of population is more likely to smoke than the general inhabitants and smoking rates are higher in single parents with dependent children and Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders. The consumption of alcohol is also the same in these groups and led to adverse effects on health. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) encompasses the broad range that has caused severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (Klower, 2020). A highly affected population group from this contagion is the aging population accumulating strongly related factors such as severe disease, death, and hospitalization. There is an absence of treatment and vaccination that has been proven to have early case detection and limit to morbidity and mortality to overwhelm healthcare capacity. It has been observed from the data that the most affected population is the aging population of 65 and above years of age. However, due to legal implications and procedures, Australia has been spared from this disease but then also amongst the total number of deaths 66 per cent of deaths have been occurred and 88 per cent of them were Australians of 60 years and above (Australian Government, 2020a). This is the figure that helps in relating the cases with psychological changes associated with psychological changes and frailty in the aging population.Here, is the need for reformation of public health policy to assess the impacts of COVID-19 to this age group. The comorbidities associated with severe diseases include obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes (Klower, 2020). Cardiovascular risk factors are seen to be highly prevalent amongst COVID-19 patients due to inadequate supply of drugs, and hospital beds in the vicinity. The increased risk of hospitalization and morbidity in the elderly population is focusing on a step ahead for implementing systems for long-term surveillance systems and management of acute effects of COVID-19 patients (Ahmed, Angel & Edson et al., 2020). The other consequence is the delivery of care standards for medical issues involving preventive and primary care. The elective procedures of care that are inadequate include transmission of risk of getting infected due to personal protective equipment, suspension of surgeries, and essential procedures(Barraket& Wilson, 2020).

Reflection on Impacts of Determinants of Health

According to me, the healthcare delivery models have contributed to the reduction of transmission risk to ensure safe delivery care through online consultations. Skill, literacy, communications, and many other reasons are there that facilitate the delivery of care to the community and inhabited patients (Zhou, Snoswell & Harding et al., 2020). I think that the old population is more affected due to COVID-19 due to the psychosomatic impact of extrication and isolation (Chang, Harding & Zachreson et al., 2020). This led to an increase in anxiety and depression levelsand intensify distress because of loss of connection with everyone. Being an Australian I felt that old people have lost their lives more than any other age group. The chronic conditions that need to be addressed due to their risk are tobacco smoking, poor diet, nourishment, high blood cholesterol, inadequate physical inactivity, and high blood pressure. There is a point that during pandemics elective surgeries have been canceled and will impact the consequential delay in the health of the population (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019). The social gradient in health has differed with the rates of health risk factors and the prevalence of chronic conditions and diseases. The non-Indigenous group of population in Australia is the refugees and insignificant groups that experience social gradient effects throughout their life. However, in the COVID-19 situation, the collectivism has promoted the health of Australians with the strict rules and regulations of government (Carlton, 2020). These people are illiterate, they were misguided to the consumption ofgarlic, salt, whiskey, and vitamins consumptions to protect themselves from getting affected due to virus.There is a lot of imbalance between the employment rates such as job seekers and job givers were highly disproportionate and led to underemployment and unemployment (Budget 2019–2020, 2019). They were likely to face complication in assessing health and social services over physical and mental illness. Australia must address the needs of people by giving them a secure surroundings concerning employment, funds, and healthcare services. The models of the healthcare delivery system should be revised based on current disease trends (Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, 2020).

Conclusion on Modelling Transmission and Control of The Covid-19 Pandemic in Australia

The coronavirus pandemic has pulled Australia back to understand the meaning of collectivism for national welfare. Australia has been able to limit the spread of coronavirus in Australia and keep the number of casualties’ relatively low number. The greatest challenge that country will face is the economic costs of the pandemic. Effective measures should be adopted such as the incorporation of campaigns of awareness and education, evidence-based-interventions, and risk assessment to evolve mental health concerns. The guidelines should be urbanized to assist the ethical framework of resource allocation during disaster management. The projection of COVID-19 is uncertain due to uneven vulnerability to hospitalization and deaths. The clinical trials should be conducted to introduce medications for the efficacy of pharmacological and advanced therapy options in vaccine development and mindfulness in the elderly. This is the health concern that is locally and globally prevalent due to the transmission of the virus and increasing the burden to mortality and morbidity in the whole world.

References for Modelling Transmission and Control of The Covid-19 Pandemic in Australia

ABC. (2020a). Aboriginal Territorians are ‘significantly represented’ in disease outbreaks, but not coronavirus. Retrieved from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-04/coronavirus-ntaboriginal-outcomes-show-lessons-for-future/12188762

Australian Government.(2020a). Coronavirus (COVID-19) current situation and case numbers. Retrieved from: https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncovhealth-alert/coronavirus-covid-19-current-situation-and-case-numbers

Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. (2020). What is at stake for people experiencing homelessness during the coronavirus pandemic? Retrieved from: https://www.ahuri.edu/

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). Hospital resources 2017–18: Australian hospital statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/hospitals/hospital-resources

Barraket, J., & Wilson, C. (2020). Digital inclusion and COVID-19 CSI response, center for social impact. Retrieved from: https://www.csi.edu.au/media/uploads/csi-covid_factsheet_ digitalinclusion.pdf

Budget 2019–2020. (2019). Retrieved from: A budget overview. Retrieved from: https://budget.gov.au

Carlton, A. (2020). The terrifying rise of domestic violence in isolation.Retrieved from: https://www. marieclaire.com.au/domestic-violence-isolation-covid-19

Human Rights Commission. (2020). Where’s all the data on COVID-19 racism? Retrieved from: https:// humanrights.gov.au/about/news/opinions/wheres-all-data-covid-19-racism

Kluwer, K. (2020). The ripple effects of COVID-19 on indigenous family and domestic violence.UNSW.Retrieved from: https://newsroom.unsw.edu.au/news/business-law/ripple-effectscovid-19-indigenous-family-and-domestic-violence

Prime Minister of Australia.(2020c). Media release. Retrieved from: https://www.pm.gov.au

Reserve Bank of Australia. (2020a). An economic and financial update. Retrieved from: https://www.rba. gov.au/speeches/2020/sp-gov-2020-04-21.html

United Nations. (2020). UN leads call to protect most vulnerable from mental health crises during and after COVID-19. UN News. Retrieved from; https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/05/1063882

Universities Australia. (2020). Uni viability is crucial to national recovery. Retrieved from: https://www/ universitiesaustralia.edu.au/media-item/uni-viability-crucial-to-national-recovery/

Chang, S. L., Harding, N., Zachreson, C., Cliff, O. M., & Prokopenko, M. (2020). Modelling transmission and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.10218. https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.10218

Ahmed, W., Angel, N., Edson, J., Bibby, K., Bivins, A., O'Brien, J. W., ... & Tscharke, B. (2020). First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: A proof of concept for the wastewater surveillance of COVID-19 in the community. Science of The Total Environment, 138764. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138764

Rockett, R. J., Arnott, A., Lam, C., Sadsad, R., Timms, V., Gray, K. A., ... & Sim, E. M. (2020). Revealing COVID-19 transmission in Australia by SARS-CoV-2 genome sequencing and agent-based modeling. Nature Medicine, 1-7. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1000-7

Zhou, X., Snoswell, C. L., Harding, L. E., Bambling, M., Edirippulige, S., Bai, X., & Smith, A. C. (2020). The role of telehealth in reducing the mental health burden from COVID-19. Telemedicine and e-Health26(4), 377-379. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/tmj.2020.0068

Rodriguez-Morales, A. J., Cardona-Ospina, J. A., Gutiérrez-Ocampo, E., Villamizar-Peña, R., Holguin-Rivera, Y., Escalera-Antezana, J. P., ... & Paniz-Mondolfi, A. (2020). Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 101623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623

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