Sport in Society

Table of Contents




Organisational Structure of Indian Premier League.

IPL Rules.

Team Rules:

Rules of Procuring Team Members:

Tagline and TV Regulations:

Variations between the Indian Premier League and other international T20 tournaments.


Introduction to Sport in Society

The Indian Premier League (IPL) is the Twenty20 Cricket Championship elite tournament in India (Sharma, Gupta, & Gupta, 2018). It was introduced by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) in 2008 to suppress the private Cricket League ICL (Indian Cricket League), which became extremely popular across the globe (Rastogi, & Deodhar, 2009). But the International Cricket Council did not accept the Indian Cricket League and prohibited the teams playing in it.

 In 2008, Lalit Modi, a business administrator and Vice President of BCCI, was elected as the Commissioner of the league (Benjamin, & Paul, 2013). He collaborated with IMG executive Andrew Widblood to launch the India Premier League, a cricket equivalent of the T-20, where every tournament was to be about 3 hours with twenty overs against each opposition team (Bhattacharya, & Bhattacharya, 2012). All of the competing teams sponsored by multiple franchisees are designated after different Indian states or cities. The team composition is performed through competitive bidding from a selection of both regional and international players (Saikia, & Bhattacharjee, 2011). The involved players promote their club and are supported by the owners of the team. The setup of the League relies on the Twenty 20 system, the most abbreviated edition of International Cricket (Shams, 2012). One of BCCI's fundamental goals behind the launch of the Indian Premier League is to boost regional player skills and offer a far more competitive and improved forum compared to Cricket's international circle. Here, it should be noted that, in addition to the above, the evolution of a highly profitable cricket tournament was another big reason for its launch (Singh, 2011). Furthermore, being one of the Sports world's most famous Tournaments, it works as a perfect hub of enjoyment to millions.

This report deals with the culture and history of the Indian Premier League. The report is focusing on different aspects: the history of the formation of the Indian Premier League, followed by the controversies and disputes that occurred in the IPL, rules along with changes to IPL, the organizational structure of IPL along with the culture. Finally, it concludes the paper.

History Behind IPL

Kerry Francis Bullmore Packer was an Australian press owner whose family business purchased both the Nine TV network's regulated activities and the Australian Consolidated Press, the largest Australian printing firm (Rowe, 1997). Packer was best recognized for establishing the Cricket World Series. But this tournament could not be effective due to certain disputes, primarily with the Australian board because of television deals. Moreover, Kohli (2009) mentioned that the BCCI declined to accept the Indian cricket league (ICL) as a cricket tournament and opposed KiranMore and Kapil Dev for adopting the ICL. Then BCCI announced its Twenty20 International league. The approved tournament, introduced in April 2008, was called the Twenty20 Indian Premier League.

Former IPL Chairman Mr. Lalit Modi developed and initiated the IPL format during the year 2008. IPL team members comprise of franchises titled after Indian towns and regions and controlled by media firms, Bollywood rising stars, and company moguls. However, Suleman and Saeed (2009) mentioned eight cricket teams are listed as distinct regions of India that are Hyderabad Deccan Chargers, Chennai Super Kings, Kolkata Knight Riders, Delhi Daredevils, Mohali Punjab Kings XI, Mumbai Indians, Bangalore Royal Challengers, and Jaipur Rajasthan Royals in the IPL. It is professional twenty20 cricket that is supported by BCCI. Five teams (Mumbai Indians, Chennai Super Kings, Royal Challengers Bangalore, Delhi Daredevils, and Kochi Tuskers Kerala) are founded by Mukesh Ambani of Reliance Industries, N. Srinivasan of India Cements, Vijay Mallya of United Brewery (UB) Group, G.M. Rao of GMR Group, and Kochi Cricket Private Limited, respectively. However, three IPL teams (Kings IX Punjab, Rajasthan Royal, and Kolkata Knight Riders) are presently founded by celebrities (Big Business, 2008). The other two team members (Deccan Chargers and Pune Warriors) are managed by the dominant media organizations like Deccan Chronicle and Sahara India Pariwar (Rasul, & Proffitt, 2010).

In 2010, in collaboration with Indiatimes, IPL has become the first sports tournament ever to be telecast live on YouTube (Cricinfo2010). Its brand rate is expected to be about US$2.99 billion in the fifth season (Business-standard, 2011). In India and the United States, the Reliance Group and UB Group also have investments in the press. Moreover, Rasul, & Proffitt (2010) illustrated that Vijay Mallya of UB Group owned Marinscope public media in California. Therefore, the IPL is a strong illustration of unique and powerful techniques employed by multinational companies by the buckling of directors on the board, mutual investments, and consolidation of ownership to maximize profits and retain their influence over the method of development. The IPL has also executed several radical modifications in the formation of the tournament.

The IPL is a professional cricket tournament focused on a franchise (Borooah & Mangan, 2012). As per The Hindustan times (2008), the IPL is operating on a franchise-based structure dependent on the recruiting players and changes American format. Such franchises were presented for bidding, where the top bidder, serving every region, holds the opportunity to own the group. The game of Cricket in India is a fascination that connects peoples from multiple backgrounds, political identities, languages, and economic contexts (Terry, 2000). While the games' popularity is very well evident, the organization has perversely witnessed a range of controversies that incorporates charges of game-fixing and severe political conflicts. A franchise controls a group, and the players are hired at an agreed price for a year. As per Kadapa (2013), the tender applies specific guidelines with a restriction on the ultimate sum that can be expended from each team.

However, Agarwal (2011) suggested that in the preliminary stages, the Round Robin Play structure is followed together with knock-out phases in the semi-finals and finals. Also, he mentioned about the target for the tournament is to earn as many runs as possible during an over, and big hits will maximize the excitement of the audience. Agarwal (2011) also mentioned that the tournament is a modern variant of the Twenty 20 cricket style. However, Borooah and Mangan (2012) have reported on IPL franchising, funding, and other business concepts. Moreover, Sports and Development (2012) identified community engagement as a tool for social improvement and contributes to developing economically deprived youth, minimizing adolescent criminality, and encouraging fitness and well being. The influence of tournaments has been acknowledged by the United Nations as a way for individuals to fulfill the maximum capacity and to accomplish individual and professional goals (Sports & Development 2012).

However, Bamzai (2011) discuss that the national elections in India coincided with the timeline of the IPL matches, the 2009 tournaments held in South Africa caused several reactions among opposing BCCI representatives. With a great expectation of risk, the government of India could not guarantee sufficient protection for the tournaments. Therefore, South Africa has preferred as the site for all the tournaments held in 2009. Numerous individuals in India did not support the concept of switching the tournaments to South Africa, and Mr. Modi suffered resignation from his role and formal complaints against him after multiple political accusations and manipulations, and eventually prohibited for a lifetime from BCCI (Bamzai, 2011). Such circumstance highlights the great politics behind IPL matches.

Moreover, Breitbartha and Harrisa (2008) discuss the professional league games, such as football support to improve the cumulative participation of young kids and school students in countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Japan. Professional sports team members frequently follow up on social expansion as aspects of company community responsibility in such countries (Breitbartha, & Harrisa, 2008). In the evolving world, women consider sports as a way of converging their involvement for development, creating healthy spaces, and establishing younger women’s social resources. Sports act as a means for cultural transformation, social integration, and movements to rebuild in dispute scenarios. Such development has been illustrated by the poor districts of Kenya, Egypt, and Nairobi.

However, the way Premier English Soccer experiences competition with a majority of international players and even overseas holders of teams approved by English supporters were investigated by Madichie (2009). Strong and professional football teams and large expenditures have enabled supporters to neglect the players' international sources. Also, India's IPL tournaments display the trend where a franchise's foreign players are applauded while they compete against another franchise's star Indian players. Dickson, Phelps, and Waugh (2010) concluded that team loyalty to the followers appears most valuable than national patriotism. Consequently, Coates and Humphreys (2003) do not believe that professional league tournaments are benefiting society or a town to maximize profit.

However, Brady (2005) discussed the emergence of international organizations and programs of NGOs that continues to encourage women from traditional backgrounds to take up sports as the sport is now gaining credibility and public support that was not earlier. Moreover, Ratten and Ratten (2011) have explained how it is possible to incorporate international promotional concepts to present sports tournaments. Local-level tournaments are related to CSR, entertainment, entrepreneurial activities, and it is an appropriate sector that deserves to be more explored while replicating IPL’s success in many other sports. Moreover, McDonald, Karg, and Lock (2010) provide descriptions of an article in Australia on a report of 3700 football match seasonal ticket owners. Such analysis reveals that participation in tournaments in the international football league had a significant part in the effective establishment of the Australian regional soccer league. However, Smythe (1977) stated that, in favor of expanding cricket centers such as India, the IPL has been influential in shaping the international cricket market.

Disputes and Controversies

The scandal around IPL went above the typical conflict and highlighted a range of legal controversies like game-fixing and gambling. The franchise became implicated in scandals that created intense media discussion. Reportedly two cheerleaders of the team, Ellesha Newton and Sherinne Anderson were not authorized to visit into a stadium due to the darker skin tone (Rasul, & Proffitt, 2014). Wizcraft International Entertainment, the activity management company, has refused the allegations and preferred for a legal approach to the situation. Also, the franchises had a dispute with Punjab Police, who demanded payment for ensuring the crew with security. The administration of the Kings XI Punjab, furthermore, was not able to serve its responsibility by offering the sum requested. Rasul and Proffitt (2014) further claims that the refusal to spend for the franchise was another technique for obtaining media attention as controversy attract publicity.

Moreover, the Kolkata Knight Riders were also caught up in conflicts. For instance, the conflict of thought on matters subject to player selection between Shah Rukh Khan and team leader Sourav Ganguly was scandalized in the press (All is Not Well, 2008; No Rift, 2008). Khan was charged with forcing Ganguly to urge the Chief Minister of West Bengal not to implement an infotainment taxes on tournaments played in Kolkata (All is Not Well, 2008). An intense argument in the press was also triggered by the discriminatory mentality of instructors. Moreover, Hindi cinema stars' engagement was a significant aspect of the higher revenue accrued by IPL franchises. Shilpa Shetty had been at the focus of a series of conflicts that brought her in the spotlight. She was India's first star to take part in Star Big Brother UK and finally won it. She created outrage after media first circulated that she had been a victim of some of her housemates 'discriminatory behaviors, earning followers' sympathy and support across the globe (Chakravartty & Zhao, 2008).

A further scandal emerged when Richard Gere kissed Shetty throughout an AIDS information advertising program in New Delhi, and radical groups and insulted public supporters triggered a dispute that caused a fierce discussion. Shetty's family was further been charged with having relations with the Mumbai mafia and being engaged in ransom charges. Also, Shetty was alleged in 2006 of abusing the Obscene Image of Women (Prohibition) Act 1986 and the Adolescent People (Harmful Publications) Act 1956 as she approved 'objectionable' photographs to be posted in a Tamil newspaper (Ahmed, & Sharma, 2006).

Furthermore, Rasul, and Proffitt (2014) mentioned about the issues of fraud impacted the Indian government, as the State Minister for Foreign Affairs Shashi Tharoor had to withdraw because of the reported participation in the bidding of Kochi Tuskers Kerala, one of the two new additions to the fourth series of the IPL. Moreover, Hajer and Versteeg (2005) discuss the water problems in Maharashtra and the IPL vs. drought dispute. In contrast to water distribution for household use in flood-prone areas of the state, the IPL vs. drought dispute was placed as a distinction between the allocations of water to sports activities in the large centers of Maharashtra. Moreover, Carvalho (2007) has been claimed that press coverage is essential in framing discourse controversies about the environment and scientific challenges. Furthermore, Clavio (2011) mentioned a dispute emerged through the season after three sportsmen were imprisoned on allegations of match-fixing (fraudulently deciding the result of a particular part of a match before it is played).

After penetrating, 167,503 posts (10.3 percent of Twitter IPL data) and 80,312 updates on Facebook (6.3 percent of Facebook IPL data) were collected. Such statistics show that match-fixing was one of the primary sub-events beneath IPL as shown in the below figure.

However, Bullough et al. (2014) mentioned that the Indian Premier League and the launch of the English Summer Test match system overlap, and because of conflicting England obligations, internally appointed players are under the ECB's discretion regarding the potential to perform. Moreover, Vishwanath (2009) mentioned that initially, the IPL implemented clear press reporting tournament rules, aligned with their intention to follow the specific format sports leagues in the media reporting in North America.

The prohibition on the usage of photographs captured during the match unless taken from, managed by Live Current Media Inc (who acquired the rights to such photographs), and the restriction of live broadcasts from the cricket fields were significant regulations implemented. It was declared unethical by news media across the globe (Vishwanath, 2009). The IPL relaxed a bit on some of the constraints on the possibility of a shutdown. The BCCI also encountered run-ins with the Cricket Australia (CA) over the availability of players for Australia's West Indies tour in 2008 and CA's preference for their advertisers to be secured internationally. CA worried that existing agreements would be undermined by representatives of the IPL (and its players) that actively contrasted with their promoters.

Organisational Structure of Indian Premier League

There are certain essential aspects of an IPL and several agreements between certain parties as well. The organisational structure of the IPL is shown in figure 2. The IPL operates on a franchisors-system focused on recruiting players and deposits in the American style. Under the structure, a funder wishing to have its squad pays a specified charge to the BCCI to gain authority.

The franchisee group emerged from large net worth people / corporate houses typically unrelated to cricket, attesting to the growing profile of the sport in India as a blue label investment (Singh, Gupta & Gupta, 2011). The primary source of IPL earnings is not the selling of sports complex ticket prices, but the media rights. Title sponsorship, the sale of licenses, and authorized services are other earning streams for IPL.

IPL Rules

There are particular guidelines by which a franchise can procure a player. The player can transact in the preview pane only with the approval. The gap between the old contract value and the latest market value will have to be paid by the owner. If the proposed agreement is valued more than the previous one, then it is a rule that the variance will be divided among the player and the owner offering the contract. The mentioned regulations implement in the context of IPL teams and their structure (CricTotal, 2020):

Team Rules:

  • For each of the eight teams, there must be an average of 16 participants,
  • Every team should have one physio and a mentor,
  • Since it is a regional cricket, therefore, an average of 8 home-grown players should be involved for each team,
  • The number of international players in a squad should not extend 10 (8 during the first tournament),
  • For each squad, at least two players will be from the BCCI under-22 pool, and
  • Amongst the participating 11 players of a squad, no more than four should be international players.

Rules of Procuring Team Members:

The founders of a squad can take players by either of the following possibilities:

  • By yearly sale
  • Hiring residential members
  • Acknowledging uncapped players
  • Getting Substitute (for members not open)
  • Dealing

Tagline and TV Regulations:

 The tagline rules for Indian Premier League T20 cricket are with DLF, an Indian real estate investor. DLF obtained the privileges to IPL tagline endorsement at the expense of $50 million for five years (CricTotal, 2020). PepsiCo straws tagline promoter till 2015. Vivo purchase franchisee in 2016. The television contracts for the IPL Twenty20 Cricket are with Sony Entertainment Television Network and World Sport Group (Singapore). The maximum offer for streaming rights at $1.026 million, for 10 years is obtained by them.

Some of the other guidelines mentioned by CricTotal (2020) are:

  • Six players will bowl for 3 overs each, and the seventh player should deliver the remaining 2 overs out of the seven bowlers in the tournament. 
  • There should be at least seven bowlers for finishing the 20 overs of a tournament. 
  • The hitting squad can request all of their additional members to bat till the completion of the 20th over. Consequently, the freedom to the bowl and fielding is only open to the very first 11 members.

Variations Between the Indian Premier League and Other International T20 Tournaments

Even though the distinction between the Indian Premier League and other international T-20 tournament is not that enough, IPL somewhat stretches ahead of T-20 (The Economic Times, 2010). The most significant variation from the IPL international T-20 tournament is break time. Mostly within tight 2 minutes, 30 seconds time span, the international T-20 match offers members an ability to formulate a strategy and have a sip.

IPL is also renowned for providing ad campaigns during the tournament (The Economic Times, 2010). Therefore there is no time constraint for team members to finish their series. However, there may be a punishment if the referees notice players mismanaging such right at their preference. The final expenditure limit for a franchise owner during the first player bidding was the US $5 million. Under the 22 players are to be compensated with a basic yearly wage of US $20,000, whereas for others, it is the US $50,000. However, the most valuable members in the Indian Premier League to date are Andrew Flintoff and Kevin Pietersen at the US $1.55 million each.

Modifications to IPL

The franchise owners bid for the payments that they were willing to give to the team members. Every other player had a starting value defined by the regulators of the Indian Premier League, but no maximum bound existed (Rastogi & Deodhar, 2009). Furthermore, the wage proposal was acceptable for three years only. Moreover, Saikia and Bhattacharjee (2011) mentioned two additional squads that have entered the IPL in the fourth tournament. The league changed regarding the total count of team members and the number of games held. The payroll proposals were also reinstated by new bidders for the available cricket players. Such modification must be linked to the performance of sportsmen in the earlier games of the season of IPL and other national and international games (Saikia & Bhattacharjee (2011).

A centralized panel can receive all the profit earned from the IPL series, which could allocate it to league administration and franchisees (CricTotal, 2020). At present, and till 2017, the allocation configuration is 54 percent for franchise owners, 40 percent for IPL, and the remaining 6 percent is the bonus money. After 2017, for franchise owners, the percentage will shift to 45 percent, 50 percent for IPL, and 5 percent for prize money. Moreover, in support of batsmen, the modifications to current first-class cricket have been questioned for shifting the nature of the tournament too far, such as enhancements in safety kit and bat shape, wicket coverage, and narrowing of the field measurements (Orchard et al., 2012). All these rule variations must prefer the bowling attack rarely, and lift the stability back into a fair and equitable batting and bowling competition. Permitting a rotation of one or more fresh and healthy spinners may keep things smoother for bowlers and perhaps more complicated for batsmen, a change that is possibly pending concerning the balance.

Cultural Background

Eliot (2010) describes culture as a natural, common framework of attributes that cannot be artificially created or designed. Most significantly, two neighboring countries (Bangladesh and India) offer an exciting forum for the release of the country-wide Twenty20 cricket tournament, such as the IPL in Bangladesh with the culture, ethnic context, life-style, socio-economic atmosphere. As neighboring countries, Bangladesh and India hold numerous similarities in regards to cultural and ethnic history, way of living, and socio-economic setting (Shams, & Riad, 2012). However, Mullie et al. (2009) investigated that company specialists and journalists, on the other side, have displayed that culture, ethnic context, lifestyles, socio-economic condition, and so on are the main variables in the market as they affect customer attitudes or customer habits in a specific sector. Both the nations possess business drivers that are identical or nearly equivalent, and whose economies are made of customers who communicate a tradition, ethnic background, lifestyles, and socio-economic structure that are almost equivalent. As a result, marketers will have a competitive benefit on the market variables in promoting a country-wide Twenty20 cricket such as IPL. Moreover, Nalapat and Parker (2005) addressed Tendulkar's famous cultural presence in Indian society as an international sports entity and as a representative for several democratic and 'ethnic' values that attract sustenance from religion and culture.

In a democratic nation like India, there are many cultures and religions, but the primary aspect that binds every Indian's soul and heart is cricket. Indian premier league is a wealth of culture (Bose, 2006). A diverse collection of cultures reflects each of the 9 team members that originate from all over India. Occupying the whole width and length of the country, IPL has evolved beyond cricket to be listed as a significant forum for all cultures throughout the nation. Some players have dhol and intense parties in the north from the Punjabi, and few players from Kolkata following the oriental and the philosophical varieties in the eastern region of the country. Therefore, other than expanding the glory of cricket, the Indian Premier League is the best platform for encouraging culture.

Conclusion on Sport in Society

This study has extensively studied the cultural and historical hypotheses of the Indian Premier League. The IPL has indeed brought the Cricketing World model to great horizons. It has concluded from the study that IPL gives young people a perfect forum from which they can grab the attention of selectors for their involvement in the respective National teams. It has also been studied that the foremost concern in the IPL is to diminish match-fixing problems, disagreements, charges, and speculation. It has also noticed that IPL is one of the largest tournaments in the history of sports because of its massive fanfare and relatively high brand value. It functions as an excellent promoter of the cultural system of India to the environment. It serves as a reference for enjoyment for millions of people throughout the world. It has concluded that the franchise owners are making tremendous gains from the League. IPL also adds a meaningful result towards the GDP of India.

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