Tourism Planning Environments

Position Statement

Developing a policy is a very planned and research-based activity. To develop anything requires a lot of understanding initially in terms of what to develop and how to develop, development is a solution to a problem or issues. It is a transformation from the current state to future state. To develop, planning is a key aspect of any development, So, to develop a policy framework for Tourism Industry, first one need to identify the gaps in the industry and it is the process through which the demands and needs of tourists in Australia are assessed to provide the best resources and activities. In the current scenario of COVID -19 Pandemic when the Tourism industry is worst hit industry it is more relevant to assess the requirements and recommend the changes in the policy to revive the industry POST COVID. This type of process is very much important and intended for local residents for the creating employment, tourists, and local businesses (Lew, 2014, p. 18). An emerging issues which in Australian tourism are identified is the widening gap in demand and supply of domestic tourism. At one end there is low demand for indigenous tourism experiences, different factors affects it supply (Espinosa, Fluker & Jiang, 2015, p. 9). Many barriers like inauthenticity, lack of accessibility, no interest from both visitors and tour operators have increased gap in this issue that will be part of this discussion paper. By working along with Tourism Australia, marketing organization, will develop a policy that can address the gaps between demand and supply in indigenous tourism (Tourism Australia, 2012, p. 1). The prime objectives of policy will be to increase the demand for indigenous tourism, supply issues, and take advantages of emerging opportunities.

Background Context

As mentioned earlier, indigenous tourism contributes and plays an important role in Australia's tourism. It is generally considered as one of the critical experiences which form the basis for marketing and global promotion activities in the field in Australia. Different studies assert that demand and supply in Australia have not transpired into footfall of visitors for many businesses. As par Ruhanen, Whitford, and McLennan, participation in Australian indigenous tourism experiences have declined over the past few years (2013, p. 20).

As per facts shared by Tourism Research Australia’s International Visitor Survey, it shows that the decline rate per annum for the number of domestic or local visitors was 18% from 2006 to 2010. Generally, European Tourists make the maximum tours and Australia destinations account for 46% of this (Ruhanen & Whitford, 2018, p. 1730). But this segment has been declining by 5% annually.

Demand for Indigenous Tourism

Many studies have been conducted to analyse the demand side of local or indigenous tourism. According to Ruhanen, Whitford, and McLennan (2013, p. 20), the main reason for low demand in indigenous tourism is that the country has limited options to satisfy the high expectation of domestic needs of indulgence. According to local people, indigenous tourism is considered as more of cultural context and it is not treated as any travel experience.

One study by Ruhanen and Whitford (2018, p. 1730) has shown that indigenous tourism in the country is felt as inauthentic and cliché. And even most of them feel that it is generally designed to cater to international tourists. There is another issue of fake art and high prices for the counterfeit products, tourists are convinced to go with the cheaper option as they are available with different prices original and fake. (Ruhanen & Whitford, 2018, p. 1730). The local tourists are very much aware of these issues and lake interest in going and buying these products and this reduces the interest in the indigenous tourism for the locals.

Accessibility is one of another reason for less participation in the indigenous segment. As per Marrie and Prideaux, the maximum cultural attractions are generally situated in remote locations, making it difficult to access (2019, p. 376).

Issues related to infrastructure to access this remote location have been tried by Australian by providing domestic tourism products in these areas to staged authenticity this leads to the issue of inauthenticity.

Research conducted by Pabel, Prideaux, and Thompson, interest in aboriginal tourism shows that domestic and international visitors both have the opinion that Australian attractions to be less attractive (2017, p. 147). These opinions were generally based on local culture. It was concluded in the research that in the indigenous segment of tourism, culture is generally not a major attraction to domestic and international visitors. Domestic tourism is the area of nature and adventure loved tourist and seek different experiences moreover as Pabel, Prideaux, and Thompson (2017, p. 147) confirm, Australian local tourism is confined to particular nationality groups which include Germans, British, North American.

As per Abascal, Fluker, and Jiang, 2016, p. 1355), more than 50% of international tourist who is interested in experiencing such tourism has hardly viewed an advertisement and have less information. In the domestic market, there is a lack of awareness that there exist indigenous tourism experiences in Australia. Other reasons for not participating in indigenous tourism are lack of time and limited budget. Moreover, many feel that it is not worth paying so much for a local experience they are not going to see anything new so this perception has also blocked the demand to increase in indigenous tourism segment. (Abascal, Fluker & Jiang, 2016, p. 1355).

Indigenous Tourism: Supply

It's been established that the need for guests might be a difficult task when it requires developing renewable indigenous tourism in Australia. the accessibility side also offers the problems of its lack of start-up capital and skilled labour. The challenge mentioned by (Ashwell, 2015, p. eighty-one), connected with indigenous employment. there is a desire to have a high amount of interaction and literacy ability within the tourism business to cope with a cultural indication with visitors. the lack of necessary skills implies that there are restricted work possibilities for indigenous folks. Furthermore, concerning indigenous items, there is a significant distinction between areas (Ashwell, 2015, p. 81). as a good example, while there are not any items within the Whitsundays region, there are several indigenous tourism items in areas that involve Cairns.

Yet another challenge relates to the good perspective of the tourism market by indigenous folks. A report carried out by Jacobsen (2017, p. forty) reveals that indigenous people that provide tourism product are positive in their power to satisfy tourists and exceed the expectations of theirs. On the other hand, operators of indigenous tourism understand that the curiosity within the indigenous item by the domestic market is minimal. As a result, there is an existence of anti-indigenous components in domestic tourism, brought on by ignorance and prejudice. Some other researchers appear to believe that the reduced need for indigenous products is created by supply problems (Ashwell, 2015, p. 81). the many reasons for this's often that the items are usually perceived as underdeveloped. there is a mismatch between the merchandise gave and encounters desired.

Chinese Inbound Market

China has become probably the largest inbound market place in Australia, becoming probably the highest yielding industry in the nation. The Chinese market place is especially essential to the overall performance of the tourism industry in Australia (Qiao, Peng, Qiao and Prideaux, 2019 p. 1723). The majority of Chinese tourists show up to Australia for the holidays. For example, in 2017 alone, Chinese tourists invest more than ten billion in Australia. Nevertheless, they visited probably the most popular destinations like Sydney, Melbourne, as well as the Gold Coast. Having a public of 1.3 billion folks, just one % of the public failed to go to Australia that season (Qiao et al., 2019 p. 1723). The rate increased by five % in 2018. Nevertheless, despite the increasing incoming Chinese store, indigenous tourism is still small. It's, consequently, vital to see why this's after the nation alone accounts for much more than one half of Australia’s tourism development. From the perspective of Chinese travellers, Australia takes the 10th place of the most appealing places to see. A survey by Qiao et al., (2019 p. 1723) mapped out the causes as to why Chinese prospects didn't take part in indigenous tourism.

Statement of Need

Once demand and supply are assessed for indigenous tourism in Australia, and it is also established that gap exists between the two. Implications are that there's a disconnect between the government, visitor markets, and indigenous tourism, through policy and marketing. What this means is that Australian tourism is experiencing a task in controlling the expectations of guests and also the challenges of indigenous happenings against the realities of what contemporary indigenous tourism provides (Weaver, 2010, p. fifty). It's, therefore, needed to get a tourism program which is going to address the source as well as demand gap problems in indigenous tourism in Australia as well as leverage emerging options. In tourism preparation, there's a want to involve stakeholders. For example, creating a policy to deal with the gap in the need as well as the source of indigenous tourism, it is going to require the participation of Australian local authorities, local towns, Tourism Australia Agency, as well as the business (Abascal, Jiang and Fluker, 2016, p. 1355). Additionally, a tourism policy ought to be created in a manner that is going to maximize the advantages of all stakeholders.

The job of government in tourism preparation is serving as an economic power which guides and also manages tourism development. One more instance of government intervention in tourism preparation is fiscal policy (Ruhanen, 2013, p. 83). In nations that are different, the federal government plays a specific function in supporting the impacts of tourism in obtaining economic development. This's attained by lowering taxes. For example, one of the elements decreasing the need for indigenous tourism is the high costs of experiences and travel. The government may, consequently, lower taxes, that will change to less costly indigenous tourism experiences and more visitors and product.

Tourism Australia, on the additional hand, is a government agency that's responsible for conducting marketing and advertising tasks to generate desire for Australian tourism. Furthermore, it is going to conduct marketing activities, especially for indigenous tourism. It is going to tailor its events and campaigns to focus on both business and pleasure tourists for indigenous tourism. Furthermore, by doing tourism trade shows, it is going to strengthen the familiarity of guests with indigenous Australian travelling (Tourism Australia, 2012, p. one). Through its websites o, the different agencies can provide personalized content based on buyers interests.

The tourism industry is additionally another critical stakeholder with regards to the improvement of tourism policy. All sectors of the tourism business, such as beverage, food, and travel, accommodation and hotel, recreation and adventure, play a crucial role. For the travelling segment, its purpose is helping guests choose and design the holiday of theirs. A study taken by Gretzel and Xiang indicates that several tourists don't understand where you can go after they get into the nation (2010, p. 183). It's, consequently, the roles of the travelling industry to make sure that they also guide clients on accessible tourist attractions, practices, and events. The food as well as beverage sector, and also accommodation and hotel, offer support services which are core components of the whole business. As a result, motels and restaurants must be quickly accessible by travellers as well as provide the very best offerings to attract demand. Recreation and adventure are just about the most significant sectors since it provides encounters which will attract tourists. If all these industry sectors of the tourism business work together, they are going to increase the need for indigenous tourism.

The local community who is an important stakeholder in promoting indigenous tourism. Very important to Involve the local community in the policy development of tourism is very crucial as it will not only create enthusiasm but also stimulate interest within indigenous people. (Abascal, Fluker & Jiang, 2016, p. 1355). Another reason as to why there's a necessity for community involvement is the fact that it is going to allow for social acceptability as well as result in higher project sustainability. Additionally, there's a high degree of transparency in plans plus policies which are a part of the nearby community, which can help reduce negative consequences by increasing awareness. Besides, these stakeholders are going to be immediately impacted by tourism in the program.

Scope of the Proposed Plan

Some of the policy methods and instruments which may be viewed in the policy strategy include growing recognition of indigenous tourism, realizing the market, developing advertising methods, enhancing accessibility and infrastructure to remote tourists' appeal areas, as well as promoting genuine indigenous tourism applications. As earlier discussed, there's little attention to experiences and products in indigenous tourism by international markets (Ruhanen and Holder, 2017, p. 320). This's among the obstacles to involvement in indigenous tourism and 1 of the elements influencing the gap between supply and demand. Both international and domestic markets are ignorant that Australian tourism has an indigenous industry along with the products it provides. Thus, it's essential to integrate a policy strategy that is going to increase the understanding of indigenous tourism.

Tourism Australia is actually among the agencies that deliver advertising tasks across the Australian tourism sector. Through the improvement of specific advertising methods and improved education also, indigenous tourism can acquire the understanding it needs. This may be accomplished by raising the promotion of the current indigenous companies via international distribution stations. Recognition programs may additionally be put together to focus on the domestic market. They can, nonetheless, highlight the different items and experiences provided by indigenous tourism (Mahadevan, 2018, p. 120). A brand name logo for indigenous tourism could additionally be put together to improve the profile of its in the marketplace. To fill up the knowledge gap current among tourist operators, their consent requires may be explored along with Use The accessible tourism market information to deal with them. Educational campaign and marketing will be acceptable to deal with both the problem of understanding and understanding gap among tour operators. The primary reason for this's it's an ideal method to reach out to individuals as well as showcase the programs being offered as well as promote the brand a lot more. Besides, it enables entrepreneurs to abide by up with clients.

The tourism sector can provide complete support to indigenous operators. This would assure that the items developed, and also encounters offered, mirror the fashionable indigenous society, simultaneously balancing the expectations and needs of tourists. Additional alternatives that may encourage the authenticity of indigenous items consist of training both guests and vendors the importance along with the worth of the genuine products (Ruhanen and Holder, 2017, p. 320). This can allow tourists to produce an informed choice before they shop for indigenous products. The main problem experienced in buying authentic products is a shortage of understanding. Promoting authenticity is also a method of creating a label of simple identification. Improving infrastructure in remote areas is additionally a policy approach which can address a shortage of accessibility. The area government has to develop roads that enable tourists to effortlessly access indigenous experiences and items, particularly the ones in areas that are remote.

In 2008, the Australian authorities began a policy process whose purpose was developing a long-range approach which targeted at dealing with the drop in the country's share of global tourism. Tourism 2020 is among the techniques which resulted from the policy operation. The method was created building competitiveness along with the resilience of the tourist industry in Australia. The primary goal of it is addressing the need and supply gap within the Australian tourist industry. The strategy seeks to obtain this objective by raising the need for travelling within Australia. Besides, it aimed to target different elements which govern the source of tourism services including investment, labour, and infrastructure (Tourism Australia, 2012, p. one). By 2020, the Australian tourist business seeks to complete a site visitor pay of 130 billion dollars a year. This may be the very best strategy to be integrated into the tourist plan

Proposed Process

The procedure for Plan or maybe policy development includes the identification of challenging or maybe problems that have been defined and also discussed (Jamal and Dredge, 2015, p. 290). The next action is creating a policy and set up a national forum in which involved stakeholders can provide feedback about the policy. After feedback is provided, the policy is the finalized, along with an action plan is created to place the policy in motion. The proposed policy methods are sent to the different stakeholders in indigenous tourist: the area authorities, Tourism Australia Agency, the nearby communities, as well as the tourism market as a full. A session with the included stakeholders will assure the suggested policy is actionable and practical (Heitmann, 2010, p. forty). Consultation should also make sure that everybody recognizes the value of the policy and the reason it has to be implemented effectively.

After the session, and also with every stakeholder meant for the brand new policy, objectives must be determined to make certain that everybody knows what's expected of them in applying the policy (Wray, 2011, p. 615). The next thing is acquiring the materials required for the program to be implemented, including funds, time, and personnel. The following phase will be the implementation phase, which also calls for cooperation between the tourism industry as well as the government. Policy implementation is going to require consultative mechanisms from the tourist sector, in addition to regular interaction with peak agencies like Tourism Australia. The final phase in the preparation process will be the review stage, where the improvement of the policy is administered and evaluated against the targets of its (Rodriguez, Hall and Williams, 2014, p. eighty-five). Reviewing a policy is important since it enables stakeholders being informed of the improvement and its overall performance. If the policy or maybe the program isn't operating based on expectations, improvements could be made, and some other policy options might be designed.

References for Policy Development to Address Demand and Supply Issues

Abascal, T.E., Fluker, M., and Jiang, M., 2016. Domestic demand for Indigenous tourism in

Australia: understanding the intention to participate. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 24, no. 8-9, pp.1350-1368.

Ashwell, J., 2015. Going bush? Factors which influence international tourists' decisions to travel to remote Australian destinations. Tourism Management, vol. 46, pp.80-83.

Dredge, D., and Jamal, T., 2015. Progress in tourism planning and policy: A post-structural

perspective on knowledge production. Tourism Management, vol. 51, pp.285-297.

Espinosa Abascal, T., Fluker, M., and Jiang, M., 2015. Domestic demand for Indigenous tourism in Australia: Understanding motivations, barriers, and implications for future development. Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 10, no. 1, pp.1-20.

Heitmann, S., 2010. Film tourism planning and development—Questioning the role of

stakeholders and sustainability. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, vol. 7, no. 1, pp.31-46.

Holder, A., and Ruhanen, L., 2017. Identifying the relative importance of culture in Indigenous tourism experiences: netnographic evidence from Australia. Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp.316-326.

Jacobsen, D., 2017. Tourism enterprises beyond the margins: the relational practices of

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander SMEs in remote Australia. Tourism Planning & Development, vol. 14, no. 1, pp.31-49.

Lew, A.A., 2014. Scale, change, and resilience in community tourism planning. Tourism

Geographies, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.14-22.

Mahadevan, R., 2018. Examining domestic and international visits in Australia’s Aboriginal

tourism. Tourism Economics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp.127-134.

Marrie, A., and Prideaux, B., 2019. Great barrier reef indigenous tourism: Indigenous invisibility in regional tourism organization destination tourism plans. In CAUTHE 2019: Sustainability of Tourism, Hospitality & Events in a Disruptive Digital Age: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference (p. 376). Central Queensland University, Australia.

Pabel, A., Prideaux, B., and Thompson, M., 2017. Tourists' preferences with Indigenous tourism experiences in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 31, pp.142-151.

Qiao, G., Peng, S., Prideaux, B., and Qiao, M., 2019. Identifying Causes for the Decline in

International Arrivals to China− Perspective of Sustainable Inbound Tourism Development. Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 6, p.1723.

Rodriguez, I., Williams, A.M. and Hall, C.M., 2014. Tourism innovation policy: Implementation and outcomes. Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 49, pp.76-93.

Ruhanen, L., and Whitford, M., 2018. Racism as an inhibitor to the organizational legitimacy of Indigenous tourism businesses in Australia. Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 21, no. 15, pp.1728-1742.

Ruhanen, L., 2013. Local government: facilitator or inhibitor of sustainable tourism

development?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 21, no. 1, pp.80-98.

Ruhanen, L., Whitford, M. and McLennan, C.L., 2013, ‘Demand and supply issues in Indigenous tourism: A gap analysis,’ Canberra: Indigenous Business Australia. 1-135

Tourism Australia. 2012. China Market Profile Retrieved 20/11/2012, from

Weaver, D., 2010. Indigenous tourism stages and their implications for sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, no. 1, 43-60.

Wray, M., 2011. Adopting and implementing a transactive approach to sustainable tourism

planning: translating theory into practice. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 19, no. 4-5, pp.605-627.

Xiang, Z., and Gretzel, U., 2010. Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, vol. 31, no. 2, pp.179-188.

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