Written Assessment


Summary of the role 


History of computing 

Difference in the present modern information systems then the generations of technology

Importance of software architecture to the modern company 


Summary of the role

To give advice on the Micro services Architecture the selected role is IT professional. This role is satiable to provide advice on the Micro services Architecture (Balalaie, Heydarnoori & Jamshidi, 2016). There are various responsibilities of an IT professional. Some of them include:

  • Providing difficult and autonomous provision in system processes, system management and hardware provision.

  • Analysing designing, modifying and supporting computer sub systems and systems.

  • Consulting with customers on computer parts requirements to define software and hardware acquisitions.

  • Developing and implementing Microsoft systems and technical resolutions for customers.

  • Installing, executing and supporting the system’s hardware and software items.

  • Developing technological principles, specifications and standards.


Micro services administrations are a product improvement method which is a variation of the SOA which is known as Service Oriented Architecture. It is a basic style that organizes an application as an assembly of roughly coupled facilities. In micro services architecture, facilities are finely grained and the conventions are light weighted (Balalaie, Heydarnoori & Jamshidi, 2016). Whenever it is utilized successfully, micro services architecture designs permit scalability in the application as the quantity of engineers who are functioning increments. This implies that whenever there is a new facility incorporated in the system or a novel link is made tracking should be done. Micro services architecture is a building style where the whole application is separated and structured as inexactly coupled, independent facilities which are demonstrated around a business space.

The word "micro" in micro services is very misdirecting since it does not direct how little or large assistance must be. The significant point at this stage is that, each free assistance has a commercial limit which can be autonomously evolved, scaled, tried, sent and checked. These can be even evolved in various programming languages (Guzdial & du Boulay, 2019). In micro services-based architecture, every part or administration has its own database. There is no single database. You can utilize RDBMS, NoSQL or some other database required for different individual micro services. This makes micro services actually self-governing (O’Regan, 2018). The right time to utilize Micro services includes:

  • Strong Component Limits: Micro services strengthen segmental arrangement, which is mainly significant for bigger teams.

  • Self-governing Deployment: Simpler facilities are easier to implement and since they are independent, are less likely to cause system letdowns when they go incorrect.

History of computing

The history of computing is very interesting. Initially, Punch card systems were utilized as the first electronic computers. After which IBM, stands for International Business Machine that took place of this technology and provided it for more usage. The first modern computer which was built up was for the purpose of military which was a mechanical computer. It was 8 feet taller and 51 feet wider. After this a company name Hewlett-Packard developed a computer system in the year 1966 (Aderaldo, Mendonça, Pahl & Jamshidi, 2017). The company started in the year 1939. Previously, magnetic cores were very popular. But, later in the year 1974, the company developed a memory processing unit which made use of active random access memory chips. The development of the first personal computer system aroused in the year 1975 which was MITAS Altair computer.

This computer system was the one which motivated Harvard freshman Bill Gates to fall out. After a year only first apple computer system was available. After this slowly and gradually personal computers started to become smaller and easy to use. In the year 1977, Microsoft Company was started by Paul Owen and Bill Gates. After this in the year 1981, first consumer laptop was released which was having weight of 24.5 pounds and price $1,795 (Balalaie, Heydarnoori & Jamshidi, 2016). After this there came a trend of smaller technology. Numerous novel computer systems of different models came into existence which is more powerful. Previously the computer systems were very big and bulky which now turned up to fit easily on a table. It is of great importance to know about the history of computing so as to gain information about the prominence of these machines. 

In the year 1950’s and 1960’s the first computer became practical with the assistance of semiconductors. IBM Company appeared as the computing leader in the year 1970. It is a hardware company (Guzdial & du Boulay, 2019). From the year 1980 software’s came into existence and by the year 1990 the software company named as Microsoft became very popular. The company Microsoft has given a number of software’s to the general people. This software’s includes word-processing. In the year 1990, World-Wide-Web came into existence because of which computing became more personal (Alshuqayran, Ali & Evans, 2016). After this a company named Google came into existence which provided personal facilities to the customers like free access to the internet library. This way everything got changed in the world of computers. Later in the year 2000 a new form of computing began which acted as a social medium as well as personal tool. So, it can be said that Facebook is challenging Google as previously Google was challenging Microsoft and before that Microsoft was challenging IBM.

Difference in the present modern information systems then the generations of technology

There is a need of communication whether we are kings, military persons, and corporate clients or business people. All the humans have possessed the capability of interaction. This is the best way to transfer the data about the policies of business or economic values around the world. Communication channels are the best way to interact with the family and friends during travelling (Hao, Novak, Yi & Li, 2017). Nowadays the technology has made enormous advancement and became very sophisticated. Previously, the companies were using stationery technologies like phones, desktop, fax machines and other equipment’s. These were connected through wires and cables.

Nowadays there is a trend of user friendly and portable device. There is a demand for wireless equipment’s. These devices are very reliable and easy to use. These devices are available to purchase at an affordable price. These devices can serve better to mobile clients. To make the device portable and increase mobility is the main aim of the U.S. military and citizen subdivisions. This also raises a level of technology. This will assist in meeting the expectations of the customers. There comes a need to make these novel technologies cost effective (Balalaie, Heydarnoori & Jamshidi, 2016). Due to the wireless communication there came a big change in the technology. These changes include:

  • Dynamically increasing community request for products and services

  • Enormous modifications universally in policies of government  about structure of industry

  • Fast proceeding technologies in a surrounding of doubt regarding the qualities of rival methods.

  • Appearance of an extensive multiplicity of novel systems for distributing interactions facilities to wireless stations

These days there is a pattern of easy to understand and versatile gadget. There is an interest for remote equipment's (Capilla, Jansen, Tang, Avgeriou & Babar, 2016). These gadgets are truly solid and simple to utilize. These gadgets are accessible to buy at a moderate cost. These gadgets can serve better to portable customers.

Software architecture

The creation of essential structures of a computer system related to software comes under the software architecture. A proper Software architecture includes all the important structures of a computer software system. Every structure consists of different software components and relationships between them. Also each structure consists of the characteristics of both the components and relationships (Balalaie, Heydarnoori & Jamshidi, 2016). There is an AAA standard which defines that how much the software architecture is good. This can be describes as:

Accountable: A good system of software creates every team accountable for accomplishing the aims of the business.

Amortized: A good system of software assists in promoting advance thinking which permits the open price of the substructure amortized. 

Aspects: The architecture of a system includes numerous aspects and decisions which are significant for a system of software (Guzdial & du Boulay, 2019). This means to consider different types of needs which include performance and security. Some of the other need includes:

  • The arrangement of the software system

  • The communicate between different system parts

  • Exterior dependencies 

  • Rules and application of technologies 

  • Risks involved 

The software architecture is basically utilized for the effective decision making. If there is a change in any part of the software architecture then it will surely have a big impact on the other parts of the software system (Van Vliet & Tang, 2016). To find out that which system has good software architecture is a very complex task. Good software architecture will help to make items cheaper and easier to implement and maintain (Van Vliet & Tang, 2016). Some of the noteworthy point includes:

  • The software architecture should be robust and easier to retain when bugs are discovered.

  • The software architecture should be extensible, flexible and working.

  • The software architecture should make it possible to adjust to necessities.

  • The software architecture should be capable enough to be scalable.

  • The software architecture should not discover any code repetition. 

  • In good software architecture the process of refactoring should be stress-free.

  • The software architecture should reply clearly to modifications during the addition of several features. The performance should be maintained. 

There is different type of software architectures which includes:

  1. Layered architecture: This architecture can be used to construct programs which can be decayed into assemblies of sub-tasks, every one of which is at a particular degree of deliberation. Every level offers different kind of assistance to the succeeding layer advanced layer. The most ordinarily discovered 4 levels of a all-purpose data framework are as per the following:

  • Presentation layer (otherwise called as UI layer)

  • Application layer (otherwise called as administration layer) 

  • Business logic layer (otherwise called as domain layer)

  • Data access layer (otherwise called as persistence layer)


General work area Applications

E-business network Applications

  1. Client-server architecture: This architecture includes two gatherings; a main server and numerous customers. The main server part will offer types of assistance to many customer segments. Clients demand managements from the main server and the main server offers relevant types of assistance to those clients. Moreover, the main server retains on change in to client demands. 


  • Online applications, for example, email, archive sharing and banking 

  1. Monolithic architecture: A Monolithic architecture is the customary brought together model for the plan of a software product. Monolithic programming is intended to act naturally contained; parts of the program are interconnected and associated as opposed to inexactly coupled just like the case with modular programming. This straightforward methodology has a restriction in size and multifaceted nature. Application is excessively huge and complex to completely comprehend and made changes quick and effectively. The size of the application can hinder the beginning up time. You should redeploy the whole application on each update.

  2. Master-slave architecture: This example comprises of two gatherings; master and slaves. The master part disperses the work among indistinguishable slave segments, and registers a conclusive outcome from the outcomes which the slaves return. 


In database replication, the master database is viewed as the definitive source, and the slave databases are synchronized to it.

  1. Peer-to-peer architecture: Here, parts are known as peers. They may work both as a customer, mentioning administrations from different peers, and as a server, offering types of assistance to different peers. A peer may go about as a customer or as a server or as both, and it can change its job progressively with time.  


  • File-sharing systems, for example, Gnutella and G2 

  • Multimedia conventions, for example, P2PTV and PDTP. 

  1. Model-view-controller architecture: This architecture, otherwise called MVC design, separates an intelligent application in to 3 sections as, 

1. Model — contains the centre usefulness and information

2. View — shows the data to the client (more than one view might be characterized) 

3. Controller — handles the contribution from the client 

Importance of software architecture to the modern company

Good software architecture is a kind of a plan for the software system which assists in negotiating, understanding and communicating among stakeholders. The stakeholders can be any like clients or management (Van Vliet & Tang, 2016). This helps to understand the entire system in an easy way. Due to this the decision making procedure becomes more efficient (Yang, Liang & Avgeriou, 2016). Good software architecture is very important during the development phase since:

Communication Basis: Software architecture is a sort of an arrangement for the product framework which helps with arranging, comprehension and interaction among partners. The partners can be similar to customers or the executives. This assists with understanding the whole framework in a simple manner (Qin et al. 2018). This dynamic strategy turns out to be increasingly proficient.

Rapid early Decision-making process: Initial decisions are taken at this point. These early decisions have a big significance on the outstanding project. So, it must be taken with extreme consideration. This is very problematic to alter this decision later.

Model Transferability: The software architecture explains about the software model and the process which are to be carried out. This scheme will enable it reuse the model for software. The code and the needs both are reusable. With this there is an advantage that with the code the experience to make the code is also transferred (Guzdial & du Boulay, 2019). We gather the information about the issues which may arise in the decision made earlier. This will help to reuse them as well.

It can be said that the software architecture will describe the difficulties which will come across during the implementation (Capilla, Jansen, Tang, Avgeriou & Babar, 2016). It also demonstrates the company’s structure and assists in making it easier to take decisions and incorporate modifications. It also allows getting an improved estimation of the time period and price of a software project. 


It can be concluded from the above report that the Micro services organization is an improvement strategy which is a variety of the Service Oriented Architecture. SOA or Service-Oriented Architecture is a kind of design of software where facilities are delivered to other modules by application components, with the help of an interaction protocol over the web. At whatever point if micro services used effectively, then there will be versatility in the application. The software architecture is the procedure of altering the features of software like reusability, scalability, flexibility, feasibility, and security into an organized resolution that encounters the technological and the commercial prospects. The architecture of software presents a common concept of a software system. It is the initial fact at which decisions of design leading the system to be constructed can be examined. The architecture of Software is the plan of a software system. There are various kinds of software architecture which includes layered, data-centric, and object-oriented type. The architecture of Software is a kind of strategy of the system and is prehistoric for the concession, understanding, and the interaction between all the stakeholders. This will assist in making the entire system easy and helps to make the decision-making procedure well-organized.


  1. Aderaldo, C. M., Mendonça, N. C., Pahl, C., & Jamshidi, P. (2017, May). Benchmark requirements for microservices architecture research. In 2017 IEEE/ACM 1st International Workshop on Establishing the Community-Wide Infrastructure for Architecture-Based Software Engineering (ECASE) (pp. 8-13). IEEE.

  2. Alshuqayran, N., Ali, N., & Evans, R. (2016, November). A systematic mapping study in microservice architecture. In 2016 IEEE 9th International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing and Applications (SOCA) (pp. 44-51). IEEE.

  3. Balalaie, A., Heydarnoori, A., & Jamshidi, P. (2016). Microservices architecture enables devops: Migration to a cloud-native architecture. Ieee Software, 33(3), 42-52.

  4. Capilla, R., Jansen, A., Tang, A., Avgeriou, P., & Babar, M. A. (2016). 10 years of software architecture knowledge management: Practice and future. Journal of Systems and Software, 116, 191-205.

  5. Guzdial, M., & du Boulay, B. (2019). The history of computing education research. The Cambridge handbook of computing education research, 11-39.

  6. Hao, Z., Novak, E., Yi, S., & Li, Q. (2017). Challenges and software architecture for fog computing. IEEE Internet Computing, 21(2), 44-53.

  7. O’Regan, G. (2018). A Concise History of Computing. In World of Computing (pp. 29-74). Springer, Cham.

  8. Qin, Z., Zhang, H., Qin, X., Xu, K., Dimitrov, K. N. A., Wang, G., & Yu, W. (2018). The History of Computing. In Fundamentals of Software Culture (pp. 1-36). Springer, Singapore.

  9. Van Vliet, H., & Tang, A. (2016). Decision making in software architecture. Journal of Systems and Software, 117, 638-644.

  10. Yang, C., Liang, P., & Avgeriou, P. (2016). A systematic mapping study on the combination of software architecture and agile development. Journal of Systems and Software, 111, 157-184.


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