• Subject Code : MIHM301
  • Subject Name : leadership

Introduction to Leadership in a Changing World

Traditionally, leadership has been viewed as the interaction between a leader and his followers (Mumford, et al., 2000). However, it is much more than that. A successful leader is one who has the ability to solve complex problems arising within her or his organization. The conventional and mechanistic leadership models are not sufficient for handling the significant adaptive problems facing the contemporary world (Allen, et al., 1999). The complicated and dynamic structures which develop when adaptive problems interrelate, need that humans revisit ecological principles so that they can fathom the part that leadership operations can play to create a sustainable and generative future. Leaders and followers are found in many varieties with regards to their society, sex, sexual orientation and race and ethnicity (Eagly and Chin, 2010). Changing trends can be witnessed as people from all over the world assume leadership roles in different organisations. There are individuals who are not allowed to assume leadership merely because they belong to particular identity groups. The behaviours of the leaders also depend on their dual identities as leaders and as members of a particular gender, race, ethnicity or other identity groups. There are also individuals from groups which, previously excluded from leadership roles, perform excellently as leaders because of their non-traditional ways. Globalisation and the movements within it can influence and set aside national frontiers and cultural identities (Macbeath, et al., 1996). It is important to do so because today the world can be seen to be divided along the lines of race, nationality, culture, religion and language among many other factors. Leaders can emerge from any part of the world and from any nationality, religion, race and gender and they must not be subdued only because they identify with a particular culture or speak a particular language.

Leadership in a Changing World - Part A

Personality Assessment: Jung’s Typology

Perceptive variations among people were brought to light by Car Jung. He was of the opinion that the variations in people’s behaviours was a result of their varied preferences in how they collect and analyse information to solve problems and make decisions. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTITM) test measures how people differ in their perceptions. MBTITM’s purpose is also to support Carl Jung’s theory regarding different types of personalities (Myers, 1962). Random variations in human behaviours are actually fairly organised and even. This is because people have fundamental differences between the ways they choose to use perception and discernment. Perception is awareness. Judgement is related to the conclusion about the perception. When people systematically differ in their perceptions and conclusions, it shows in their different actions, reactions, attractions, principles, necessities and motivations. I have taken the MBTITM test like millions of other people in the world. It has indeed helped me in understanding myself and others better. The MBTITM test uses four distinct pairs of qualities to categorize individuals in one of the sixteen distinct types of personalities.

  • Introversion vs. Extroversion: Through the MBTITM test results, I found out that I am a more of an introvert (I) than an extrovert (E). My score was five out of eight for introversion. I behave as an extrovert in only front of the people I know well. I can talk to them about almost anything under the Sun. In my organization too, I naturally behave as an extrovert with the people I am comfortable with and have had old and good relations with. I can ask them for help and assistance easily and can help and assist them in times they need me. I do not hesitate to say “no” when I am occupied elsewhere. The introvert within me surfaces when I meet new people whom I do not want to reveal anything personal about myself until I have had the chance to know and understand them properly. This happens a lot. The introvert within me also surfaces when some of the new people I meet are rude or ill-mannered. It makes me angry from inside but I cannot show it and try to correct them because they are not personally known or close enough to me to give them a word of advice. It is not that I am afraid of such people that I choose not to correct their behaviour, but it is more of me thinking about gaining their confidence first and then trying to show them a path. I play in the safe zone in such circumstances. However, I am flexible in dealing with all kinds of people in my organization by changing my behaviour from being an introvert to an extrovert back and forth. Newcomb (1929) in his research of fifty-one boys found that all of them had equally divided mixtures of traits of both the personality types, that, is introverts and extroverts.
  • Sensing vs. Intuition: From the test results, I found out that I am able to absorb information more through my five senses and that I am a sensing (S) type of personality rather than an intuitive (N) type of personality. My score in the test was five out of eight for sensing (S) This is something that I have observed in my real life also, whether it is personal life or professional life. When I rely on my senses to absorb information, I mostly perceive things correctly and arrive at sound conclusions, whereas, when I try to use the power of my intuition to perceive things, distorted images of reality are built in my mind which do not help me to arrive at the right conclusions. It is not that my intuition powers do not work at all, but it is that I am able to absorb information correctly eighty-five to ninety per cent through my senses and just ten to fifteen per cent through intuition. Most of the decisions I take in my organization are based on sensing while only a little fraction of them are based on my intuition. Hogarth (2001) defines intuition as the sixth sense in human beings.
  • Thinking vs. Feeling: Bartlett (1958) has described thinking as a wide array of mental activities. Through the test, I realised that I am less of a feeling (F) person and more of a thinking (T) person. My test result was five out of eight in favour of thinking (T). In making decisions throughout my life, I have relied on my what I believe to be right and wrong. I rely on the values and principles rather that I believe in. The same is the case in my organization. If someone were to ask me what is the ratio of the decisions that I take by thinking and the decisions that I take by feeling, my answer would be surprising because I take 95 per cent decisions by thinking and only five per cent decisions by feeling, so the ratio would be 19:1.
  • Judging vs. Perceiving: The people who judge want things to be settled and orderly, while the people who perceive want things to be spontaneous and open-ended (Personality Page, n.d.). According to the results of the MBTITM test, I am more of a perceiving (P) personality than a judging (J) personality. I do not like deadlines and closures. I also do not like having goals. I face difficulties in making quick decisions based on the information I have. I like ambiguity or changing my mind several times because of the inflow of a large amount of information before making decisions. The decisions I take in my organization because of my judgements are seldom correct and those which I take owing to my perception are respected, which means my perceiving capabilities are good.

The final result that comes out is that I am an ISTP kind of a personality. I am cool, which means I do not let unfavourable situations get the better of me. I am observant, which means I closely look into the details of the different tasks going on around me and I am also meticulous in my work. I am easy-going which means I do not usually have hang-ups with other people. I give them the freedom to work as they like as long as they are bringing in results. I am also a good craftsperson. I am creative and artistic. I know how to decorate my surroundings. I am articulate in speech and effective in writing. The other of the sixteen personality types are ISJT, ESTP, ESTJ, ISFJ, ISFP, ESFP, ESFJ, INFJ, INFP, ENFP, ENFJ, INTJ, INTP, ENTP and ENTJ.

Activity 1) I practice acts of leadership in my everyday life. A leader must perform his own duties perfectly first before leading other people. I am an early riser and an early sleeper. I reach my workplace on time. After sitting in silence for 5 minutes and mapping down the day’s agenda in my mind, I start my work and only stop when I finish all the tasks. When I reach home, I spend an hour and a half on the treadmill and later take my pet dog for a walk. I try to emulate successful leaders like Barack Obama. Ever since he quit smoking, he never failed to spend forty-five minutes on his workout routine every day (Wei, 2012). My mother and my immediate boss are my mentors who provide me with feedback related to my monthly activities. I attend leadership workshops and take up courses on online platforms to enhance my skills. I implement what I learn through these workshops and courses at my workplace. I am always patient with my subordinates as I realize that at one point of time in life, I had always been where they are today. I empathize with them.

Activity 2) Mathers (2020) describes Vladimir Putin- the President of Russia- as a heroic leader. Also referred to as the “lion of Russia”, Vladimir Putin is one of the most dynamic and charismatic leaders in the world today. It is in his regime that the world’s first vaccine against CoViD-19 has been developed and is being tested for mass use. Vladimir Putin is all ready to change the Constitution of Russia in his favour so that he does not have to step down from the post of the President in the year 2024. Sundar Pichai, on the other hand, is a humble leader. Though the CEO of one of the largest IT firms in the world- Alphabet Inc.- he has been known to maintain a dignified and respectful stance each time when allegations of ousting small businesses were levelled against him. This is the difference between a heroic leader and a humble leader. Both are easy to find.

The weaknesses in my leadership lie in my inability to react to hostility or rude behaviour by my subordinates at the right time. I also face difficulties in managing their emotions and engaging in intimate talks with them. However, the strong points of my leadership are that I am highly result-oriented. I give my employees the freedom to work as they like but they should prove to me that they are working hard by giving me results. My communication skills are also up to the mark. A vision for the industry one works in, creativity and influence on people are factors which play a big role in defining a strong leadership (Branson, 2017). I have these qualities in me.

The easiest element of leadership that I find in me is intention. The hardest is followers. It is easy to have the right intentions, but it is hard to convince others of the same. For example, if a leader really wants to do something to uplift the neglected sections of the society, he has the right intention. Many people still would not believe him thinking that he just wants to collect their votes to come to power.

The paradigm shift from competition to collaboration actually makes the job of a leader easier. He no more has to worry about the existence of any kind of competition. He just has to collaborate with his peers and followers to achieve organizational goals and work in tandem with them. This reduces the feeling of animosity and competition between leaders in different organisations and within different departments of the same organization.

The best leader that I know of is Barack Obama. He had a vision since his teenage. He wanted the society to listen to his message. He had also formed a group called the “Choom Gang” with his friends as a youngster. They used to have all the fun they could. As years passed by, Obama started growing more and more responsible. Though he still had some bad habits like smoking, he was slowly and steadily doing away with them one by one. He became a Senator in the Government of the United States of America in 1997 and thereafter, there was no looking back. He went on to become the President of the United States of America for two consecutive terms starting from the year 2009 till 2017. He is the most fascinating leader that I know of.

Only a few people succeed at both management and leadership because some managers do not have leadership qualities in them and they tend to confine themselves in the domains of administration and management only. It is also because some leaders are not very good managers. They instead allocate management tasks to different persons in their teams. Successful managers with leadership qualities can play both the roles simultaneously. An example would be that of Sachin Tendulkar- a cricketer of world fame. He was a leading batsman of the Indian cricket team, playing from the year 1989 till 2013, when he retired from all forms of cricket. During his tenure, he also coached children in his cricket academy. He also went on to become a Member of Parliament in the Government of India. He played so many roles in his life that we can say with evidence that some people can be both good managers and good leaders.

I totally agree that humility should be an important attribute of a strong leader. A recent event in which a leader shifted from being heroic to humble happened in Belarus. Alexander Lukashenko had been the President of Belarus since 1994. Amidst ongoing protests in Belarus and anti-incumbency prevalent and popular in the country, he resigned from his post on 9th August, 2020, after 26 years of retaining the position.
Management is more connected with tasks at hand. Leadership is more connected with people and popular opinion.

A good leader must gain popularity within his organisation. He must be able to do his work efficiently. He must be exemplified by his superiors. He must have influence on other people within the organisation. On the other side, a good manager must only be efficient in his work with nothing to do with popular opinion.

Leadership is both an art and a science because it takes a great deal of wisdom to convert ordinary people into followers. That is the art part. The scientific part is when the leader has to allocate business to his team members according to their abilities and monitor them as they go about performing their tasks.

Reflection) At this point of time, leadership to me is performing my duties efficiently whether I have support from anybody or not. It is in the performance of my duties that I will grow as a person and I might attain some support of other people in the future. My values are to be kind and friendly to everyone, help someone out if they are in genuine need while at the same time not go out of my way to help others, performing my duties and obligations and thinking positive no matter what the circumstances be. My beliefs are that the world is a mix of good and bad people. It is not even necessary to look for the good in everybody, as is suggested by some great soul. It does not work that way in the contemporary world. The only option we have is that we should try to associate only with the good people. My belief is that no matter at what nadir a person may be in life, he can learn lessons from his mistakes, promise to never repeat them and rise from there. The process may be gradual, but the person can still achieve the zenith. I am aware of my personality characteristics to a good extent as is evident from my aforementioned descriptions. Only with a little caution, I may be able to perform very well as a leader in my organisation. There are some spheres within social-awareness and relationship management that I need to touch upon. Otherwise, I am performing well. I recognise my emotions very well but may not be able to exhibit them at the same time and/or exactly as they are. However, there is always room for improvement and I am working just on that. I appreciate how people at my workplace and within the circle of my family and friends see me and I feel blessed for the same.

Emotional Intelligence

Salovey and Mayer (1990) describe emotional intelligence as group of expertise hypothesized to lend precise assessment and communication of emotion in the self and in others. Emotional intelligence relates to effectual balancing of emotions in the self and in others. It uses feelings to inspire, aim and attain in one’s life. Mayer and Salovey (1993) have also highlighted that emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence involving the capability to watch the emotions of oneself and that of others. It also gives the ability to distinguish between the emotions of oneself and that of others and utilise the information to direct one’s reasoning and activities. As far as I am concerned, I mostly link different internal physiological cues with different emotions. I usually do not let pressures take the better of me. I know the effect that my behaviour might have on others. I can resolve my conflicts more or less in a friendly way. I do not vent out my anger impulsively. I can understand when others are suffering. I can build consensus with others. I can do uninteresting work for long hours. I usually cannot help others when they knowingly or unknowingly exhibit their emotions. I remain calm when somebody is venting out their anger on me. I mostly do not realise when I become defensive. I do what I say half the times and the other half of the times I do not. I refrain from engaging in personal conversations with others in my organization. I face some difficulties in treating people in the way they treat me. According to this, my self-awareness stands at 75%, self-management at 75%, social awareness at 50% and relationship management at 50%. It means I am not far behind in developing my leadership capabilities. My overall emotional intelligence score is 62.5% signifying that there is potential for me to build upon it.

I must try to be more aware of when I become defensive when I communicate with others. Gibb (1961) has described communication as a process of the people rather than a process of the language. I tend to get either too excited or too low unknowingly when I become defensive and it shows in my behaviour. It means I should clearly point out to others if I dislike something they say or do. I should also try to take other people’s emotions into concern. I must always do what I say. I do so half the times and do not do it the other half of the times. I should strive to put my words into actions always, otherwise it would raise questions on my credibility and damage it. Doing what I say will improve my self-management sphere of emotional intelligence. Self-management facilitates in maximizing one’s productivity, improving their performance at the workplace as well as in successfully fulfilling their professional aims (Indeed, 2020). Good self-management practices favour one’s employability aspects and assist in better management of their career path. I must be more empathetic and try to walk in the shoes of other people and help them in managing their emotions. I must try to make the environment suitable in my organization for my employees to work in where they can feel free to exhibit their emotions, engage with each other and destress themselves. I must try to know about them more, what their interests are and what they like to do in their free time. Social awareness entails social activity and patterns of communication (Naaman, et al., 2010). I must try to make others feel good about themselves. This can happen when I appreciate them for their work and efforts, reward and incentivise them for their achievements. I must try to look after all my employees and co-workers by providing them basic amenities, like cab services for those who do not own vehicles, medical and housing allowances, relaxation and recreation rooms in the office space and a wholesome working environment. I must also be able to treat people the way treatment is meted out to me by them. This shall ensure mutual respect between the employees and myself, and will also ensure that the employees who uselessly and cunningly take liberties from me, are not able to do so. Interpersonal relations can be strengthened amongst the co-workers if they follow the useful techniques of relationship management. Kenton (2019) has pointed out that great partnerships between an organization and its patrons can be created through relationship management, rather than just seeing this association as transactional in nature.

  • I have developed a lot of distinctive strengths and weaknesses owing to my preferences between introversion vs. extroversion and my preferences for sensing, feeling and judging. My strengths are being maximized and my weaknesses are being minimized. My way of interacting or communicating with people in both my personal and professional life has changed for the better. I can see things from a different perspective now and arrive at better conclusions. My judgments have become better. Earlier too, I used to work not just for my own personal success, but for the success of everyone. Now, this philosophy is engrained in my personality. I have the ability to engage and inspire my colleagues, employees and clients. The patterns of my thought and my behaviour have a much better effect on people around me. Carlyn (2010) highlights that the MBTITM is a sufficiently dependable self-report catalogue.
  • I acknowledge and respect my colleagues and subordinates. To me, they are also human beings like myself and they have their own sensibilities, beliefs and concepts. I wish for my employees to grow, develop and chase the stars. I want them to build a strong self-image of themselves and have a high sense of self-worth. I always tend to their needs so that they are well-equipped to achieve both their personal and organizational goals. Cassel (2002) has recommended that to be compassionate, one must build strong relations with others and acknowledge others. I am trying to do exactly these things by being compassionate to my co-workers. Through this, I have been able to retain a senior position in my organization for so many years and have gained the love, respect and admiration of most of my co-workers. I get things done smoothly and easily by my subordinates because they know I am there for them when they need me. I have acquired their trust because I am always there to help them. Nobody is good for everybody and nobody is perfect, but I strive to make myself a better person every day, both in my personal and professional life. This reflects in my overall attitude towards life and its challenges both in the personal as well as in the professional sphere.

Leaders have charisma and virtue (Bass and Riggio, 2006). They capture the imagination of the masses. Leadership is not limited to having the people to follow the leader, but it is more about what best the leader does for herself or himself, how she or he hones her own talents, chisels her or his own personality and is able to plan and accomplish the most demanding of the tasks within the deadline. People then follow the leader and this is how leaders are formed. Hughes (1993) visualizes leadership as a process rather than an organisational position. He also goes on to say that leadership is both an art and a science. Strong leadership has the power to influence people and their decisions. Experience and exposure play vital roles in developing leaders and leadership. Understanding leadership and making improvements in it can be done through its academic study. I believe that a leader has to constantly engage in learning and adapting. Tichy and Devanna (1986) have highlighted that leaders have to deal with organisational changes. She or he must be ever ready to adapt to changes and open new avenues to achieve organisational goals. Leaders are courageous, they believe their followers, they are principled, learners for life and visionaries. They have the capabilities to deal with complications, vagueness and dilemmas. A leader must be steadfast as far as company policies are concerned, he must not tolerate anyone diverging from that. He must be gentle and polite and strict and responsible at the same time. A leader has to look after all the aspects of his business, so he must possess clear insights as to how different goals are to be achieved. His knowledge specific to his field and expertise at least, must be unquestionable. A leader must be able to make amends there and then when things are going wrong in the organisation. He must have the patience to deal with all kinds of people.

I think, according to my personal self-assessment and discussions about leading and leadership throughout my learning phase, I have a huge amount of potential to be a great organizational leader. Obviously, I need to put in efforts daily to achieve this. I need to tap that potential by focussing on my strengths and building on them and gradually reducing my weaknesses. I need to work on the areas of enhancing my intuition abilities, increasing my thinking power, shaping my perceiving potential, increasing my social awareness and building my relationship management. These are critical for me to work on to become a great charismatic leader in my organisation. Moreover, I have some qualities which prove that I can be a great leader and they are the mix of introversion and extroversion that I exhibit in my communication with my peers, subordinates and people in general and self-awareness and self-management. I only need to put in a little effort to strengthen my self-awareness and self-management, which otherwise are areas that I am already performing well in. I am skilled in communication, public relations and management. These are crucial factors for someone like me to become a leader. I can further enhance my skills by working on them and retaking the MBTITM test. Knowledge is a theoretical concept lacking in reference to the real world (Bolisani and Bratianu, 2017). Yet, knowledge has power and no clear explanation for the word itself so far. To put it simply, some academicians have explained knowledge as the act of knowing. I am knowledgeable in fields like food science, hotel management, hospitality, customer relations and public relations. These are essential for my growth as a leader within the organization and I am already performing well in these fields. I am happy with what I do in my life. My job is precious to me. My work means everything to me. I never crib or lament about work or work pressure. The people in my personal and professional lives are happy with me. I look after both of these kinds of people, that is, people in my personal as well as in my professional life. They too mean everything to me. I work not just for my own success but also for the success of those around me because I want to watch them grow and shine. These are some of my personal attributes which will help me to grow as a leader in the long run.

I reckon that my leadership skills will help me make significant contributions to the hotel industry and my organisation as well. The hotel industry on the global scale is marred by changes and challenges. There are issues related to revenues, manpower and human resource (HR), restaurant and food service management, marketing problems including pricing and quality management, governmental regulations, competition and professionalisation of hotel staff among a host of other problems (Salleh, et al., 2010). To deal with such changes and challenges in the global hotel industry, I, as an emerging leader must gain knowledge about the flow of revenue and expenses and their management. I must make sure that my hotel hires and absorbs industrious people into it who are talented and are willing to work for a considerable tenure. The HR department has to be instructed by me for this and I must be around whenever I get the time to see the proceedings of some of the interviews. I must direct my chefs to cook in hygienic conditions and cook such food that should be to the liking of the customers and is of high quality. They should take feedbacks from our customers and build on them. I should instruct my waiters and waitresses to be polite and gentle to the customers, greeting them with a smile and serving them with gratitude, so that the customer delight can be maintained. As far as marketing is concerned, I would fix the prices in my hotel to fit with the consumers’ perception of value so that they do not find our prices exorbitant and are delightful after receiving our services. This would build our brand equity and trust in our customers leading to customer loyalty. I would ensure that my hotel follows all the rules, laws and regulations of the government and strictly abide by them. To lessen the competition in the market, I would make my hotel staff highly professional so that we can offer the best services and facilities to our customers which they would be happy to receive and that too at prices which fit with their perception of value. Though it is hard work, I believe nothing is impossible and I will develop these management abilities in order to make my business flourish in these ever changing and challenging times.

Leadership in a Changing World - Part B

Leadership Models and Theories

Leadership is defined in different ways by successful business persons all over the world (Kruse, 2013). All kinds of persons fit into one of the sixteen types of personalities of the MBTITM test and so do all kinds of leaders. The leadership models I have chosen for this part are Team-oriented leadership and Bureaucratic leadership. Team leaders are those who set constructive examples. The create collaborative team frameworks which focus on enhancing the strong points of every member of the team. Such environments encourage every member of the team to realise their maximum potential both personally and as a part of a larger team. Collaboration and inspiration are the driving factors in these scenarios. Team-oriented leadership is also called People-oriented leadership. This is the most successful style or model of leadership in terms of productivity and engagement and satisfaction of the employees (Indeed, 2020). Team leaders become coaches for their employees by identifying every employee’s personal strengths and weaknesses and by trying to foster their strengths and reduce their weaknesses. They are good at building excellent teams which can work together and enhance the quality and productivity of work. This type of leadership is also participative or democratic in nature as it is a mix of authenticity, authority and participative thinking and decision-making. Bureaucratic leaders are those managers whose administrative skills are far better than their hands-on leadership qualities. I have chosen Bureaucratic leadership as the second choice for this part because I think at some places, administration is a bigger need than anything else. Bureaucratic leaders focus more on execution and outcomes. They uphold a rigid pattern of instruction and outcomes, which are reported to the board of directors and/or shareholders. Bureaucratic leaders form non-negotiable procedures, expecting their employees to follow a clear set of metrics and go behind definite objectives so that the manager(s) can keep a track of the outcomes. Bureaucratic leadership is useful in industries where safety standards and legal obligations must be met and the hotel industry is no exception to that. This is another reason for me to be taking Bureaucratic leadership as the second choice in this part. Bureaucratic leadership is antithetical to Team-oriented leadership in the sense that it does not encourage creativity, personal ideas and thoughts, individuality and collaboration because it wants its employees to follow a set standard of procedures and not diverge from the same (Luenendonk, 2020).

  • Some interesting aspects of these theories add greatly to my understanding of leadership in general. I am especially fascinated by the theory of team leadership. It regards each member of the team as a distinct unit (Colliness, 2010). It respects their individuality, allowing them to use their sense of judgements into achieving organisational goals. Zaccaro, et al. (2001), have highlighted that the team members must be able to efficiently unify their activities. It is then that a certain harmony and synchronization in the working of the team is achieved. Working together in a team also increases the zeal of each member of the team. This is how bigger and bigger tasks are achieved together by the team members and build strong relations among them. Subsequently, they want to work together in the different future projects because they are aware that together they can accomplish all kinds of goals. What fascinates me about Bureaucratic leadership is that in it, the kind of administration is exemplary. There are instances when rigorous administration is needed more than team leadership. In these instances, sticking to rules is more important than using individual sense of judgement. Individuality does not matter in Bureaucratic leadership. It is compromised so because the procedures into attaining organizational goals are already streamlined. Diverging from these procedures might cause havoc in the entire system. In this case, the leader stands answerable to the board of directors and/or the stakeholders. It is therefore that she or he does not encourage his followers to use their sense of judgment. These are specifically the key features of these two leadership styles that I find interesting and which add to my knowledge and understanding of leadership.
  • There is an increasing significance of sustainability in the global hotel industry (Jones, et al., 2014). I believe that some aspects of the aforementioned theories in part B of this assessment regarding leadership may be of practical use to me in emerging as a leader in my organisation and in my overall understanding of the global hotel industry. Work in the hotels is carried out in teams, so team leadership is indispensable to the hotel industry. In the hospitality sector, employees must endure all kinds of guests and all kinds of behaviours from them without losing their cool. This requires a lot of patience with the guests, presence of mind and innovation on the part of the employees. The employees should have some degree of freedom to deal with the guests maintaining the dignity of both the guests and themselves. Bureaucratic leadership at the same time is also important in the hotel industry. This is because some operations have set standards of procedures and digressions from these are not allowed. These procedures may be regarding the timings of the hotels, prices and tariffs on rooms and suites, allocation of rooms and suites and timings for different facilities of the hotel among a host of other procedures.

Conclusion on The Ecology of Leadership

The times are changing quickly. As new technology and ideas emerge, novelty in leadership becomes the need of the hour. Leaders of the contemporary world cannot follow the conventional principles on which leadership was based in the past. They have to adapt to the ever-evolving world and move ahead with the changes taking place around them. Leaders are chosen so that they can represent the people in their organizations. It is their moral duty to stand on behalf for their people and also on behalf of them. Leaders come from different identity backgrounds. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTITM) is a popular personality assessment test and can be carried out on leaders also. It furnishes the result as one of the sixteen types of personalities which Carl Jung had coined. The test results have been found to be quite accurate throughout the world with millions of people having taken the test. The test tries to find out whether a person is an extrovert or an introvert, whether they absorb information through sensing or through intuition, whether they think more or feel more and whether they judge more or judge more. Adding to this, a leader must have a high-level of emotional intelligence. She or he should be able to self-assess their actions and thoughts. Finally, they should also be able to build excellent teams which give fruitful results.

References for The Ecology of Leadership

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