Grubic, N., Badovinac, S., & Johri, A.M. (2020). Student mental health in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A Call for further research and immediate solutions. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 2020, 66(5), 517-518. Available at https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0020764020925108.
This paper talks about the level of stress among college students and negative performance in academics which have increased during the COVID-19 period all over the world. The Authors of this paper do not have a conflict of interest on the issue and stand together at the same platform. Where most of the research and journal talks about the mental health of the general public in the global sphere, this paper focuses on the students who are distressed and affected due to the pandemic. The burden on the psychological health of college students has significantly increased during the global development of coronavirus disease (Torales et al., 2020). The measures taken by the government to minimize the spread of this disease such as social distancing has led the institutions to shut down and these institutions have resorted to online platforms of learning which can be seen to pose a negative feeling in the students as academic stressors. The students are suffering due to the pressure of learning independently; the daily routine of going to college has been abandoned. All these problems are leading the students to drop out of college (American College Health Association, 2019). Around 25 per cent of college students are experiencing anxiety symptoms due to delay in academics concerns and its impact on day to day life of students (Cao et al., 2020).
Lee, J. (2020). Mental Health Effects of School Closures during COVID-19. The Lancent Journal on Child and Adolescent Health, 4(6), 421. Available at https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2352-4642%2820%2930109-7.
This article focuses upon the impact of the closure of schools due to COVID-19 on children and adolescents who are mentally unstable. The researcher has viewed all the issues confronted by these children in the times of COVID-19; the arguments are supported with reliable data, thereafter the writer suggests some solutions to tackle the issue. Unlike other papers and articles, this one talks about the mentally ill children who bear the psychological impact due to the disease. In this study, a survey report says that 83 per cent of children with mental illness have made their condition worse during the period of pandemic and mental health support services were not accessible to 26 per cent students (Young Minds, 2020). The academic routine which at one point helped these students by acting as a coping technique is lost in the COVID period due to which their symptoms have relapsed. Children suffering from depression will have a tough time getting back to a routine when the school and college will open in near future.
Goothy, S.S.K., Goothy, S., Choudhary, A., Purohit, M., Pathak, A. & Chakraborty, H. (2020). COVID-19 lockdown impact on the mental health of students: need to start a mental health cell. MedCrave Journal on MOJ Anatomy and Physiology, 7(2), 51. Available at https://medcraveonline.com/MOJAP/MOJAP-07-00289.pdf.
This paper the authors have clearly outlined the performance of students in their examination and how the performance has been affected due to the pandemic. This paper takes under its purview the students who are in their last year of studies and those going to give their entrance examinations. Where other papers talk about the stress built upon the student’s mental health, this paper talks about their performance in examinations due to such stress. Due to lockdown; the students studying in various academic institutions were stuck in different phases of their academic year. In the normal course of business too, the students suffer from stress when their exams are close (Singh, Goyal & Tiwari, 2012). The stress has increased during the pandemic as the exams have been postponed and there is no fixed date of the examinations. So much stress among students has led to numerous cases of suicides. To maintain the balance in the minds of students and to reduce stress, there is a need to set up a mental health cell where a psychiatrist will be appointed for counselling those students undergoing depression and stress.
Li, H.Y., Cao, H., Leung, D.Y.P., & Mak, W. (2020). The Psychological Impacts of a COVID-19 Outbreak on College Students in China: A Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 1-9. Available at https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/11/3933.
In this study, the authors have collected data from two online surveys related to the mental health of college students and whether the pandemic had a positive effect or a negative effect on their lives. According to the survey, the group having the most variable degree of psychological difficulty is the students. Other papers on this issue are based on secondary research but this paper is based on primary research. A survey of sleeping habits of college students for the past two years was also conducted. The surveys showed that there is a negative impact of the pandemic on the mental health of college students (Cao, W, 2020). The students who participated in these surveys were also exposed to the risk of COVID-19. The students were locked down at their places, depriving them of their liberty and the time till which they would be locked down was also uncertain. (British Broadcasting Corporation, 2020) The result of the survey concluded that confinement or lockdown leads to depression, anxiety and fear which in turn hurt the minds of students.
Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on College Students’ Mental Health in the United States: Interview Survey Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), 6-7. Available at https://www.jmir.org/2020/9/e21279/.
According to this paper, there are some crucial factors which help the students to be successful in their higher education. These factors can have a diminishing effect on the performance of children due to mental health or psychological issues. The authors of this paper have focused their attention on the mental health issues of students in the United States of America. An ongoing study of an outbreak of infection and pandemics recorded stressors, for example, contamination fears, dissatisfaction, fatigue, deficient supplies, lacking data, money related problems, and stigma (Brooks, 2020). This research has a futuristic approach and focuses upon how the college students are coping up with the mental stigma of this pandemic. Surveys were conducted for this purpose which shows that no academic routine has led to lethargy and home is not a place to study but a place to rest. The coping mechanism undertaken by students included self-management technique and taking the support of others.
Hamouche, S. (2020). COVID-19 and employees’ mental health: stressors, moderators and agenda for organizational actions. Emerald Open Research, 2020, 2(15). Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342058/
This paper specifically talks about depression and mental distress caused by COVID-19 on employees. It enumerates the main stress factors which may aggravate the effect of the pandemic on the employees in near future. The author provides suggestions and recommendations from the human resource management perspective to mitigate the impact of a pandemic. A person’s emotional suffering along with some symptoms of depression, anxiety and insomnia is known as psychological distress. This is the outcome of a pandemic (Chiu et al., 2020). The main stressors enumerated in this paper are Safety and Threat of the draconian disease (Brooks et al., 2020), the unknown characteristic of the disease (Garfin et al., 2020) and Lockdown (Parmet & Sinha, 2020). Along with these stressors, there are some factors which will aggravate or mitigate the effect of the disease during or after this pandemic period which are Employees’ role in the workplace, his safety and health in the workplace and work from home. The suggestions to mitigate the effect of the pandemic on the mental health of an employee consist of optimum transparency and communication among them, proper training of employees and prevention of stigma.
Sasaki, N., Kuroda, R., Tsuno K., & Kawakami, N. (2020). Workplace responses to COVID-19 associated with mental health and work performance of employees in Japan. Journal of Occupational Health, 62(1). Available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1348-9585.12134
The main objective of this study is to establish a link between impacts of COVID-19 on the mental health of the employees in Japan and measures taken at the workplace to reduce the impact. The authors do not have a conflict of interest on the particular issue and their thoughts are similar to one another. This paper unlike other papers on the same issue provides for measures taken at the workplace to lessen or prevent the effect of coronavirus disease on the mental health of employees (Gostin & Wiley 2020). The measures taken by employers at the workplace are divided into various categories which include (Wang et al., 2020): measures are taken at an individual level to reduce the spread of disease at the workplace, a well-settled criterion for clinical contact, leave from work when a person is infected, reliable sources to gather information and any other special measures taken. All these measures if taken by the employees at their workplace can reduce the impact of infection as well its spread. It will also prove significant to reduce stigma and fear from the mind of employees and psychological distress and will in turn improve the performance of work.
Cosic, K., Popovic, S., Sarlija, M., & Kesedzic, I. (2020). Impact of Human Disasters and COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: Potential of Digital Psychiatry. Journal of Psychiatria Danubina, 2020, 32(1), 25-31. Available at http://www.psychiatria-danubina.com/UserDocsImages/pdf/dnb_vol32_no1/dnb_vol32_no1_25.pdf.
This paper focuses upon the impact of the infection on the mental health of the employees working in this period with a pay cut in their salaries. It is compulsory at this point to determine the long term effects of destabilized mental health and wellness of worldwide society. The economic distress and the number of deaths all over the world have posed a serious threat to the emotional wellness of the people around the world. The WHO in this regard had issued a guideline and a direction which stated that (WHO 2020) the principle mental effect on a date is raised paces of pressure or tension, with a notice that as new measures and effects are presented – particularly isolate and its consequences for some individuals' typical exercises, schedules or jobs – levels of forlornness, misery, hurtful liquor and medication use, and self-hurt or self-destructive conduct are likewise expected to rise. The paper also discusses the potential of Digital Psychiatry which is unfortunately not so great in this period of COVID-19.
Greenberg, N. (2020). Mental Health of health-care workers in the COVID-19 era. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 16, 425-426.Available at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41581-020-0314-5
This paper talks about the protection of health care workers and improvement in their mental health. The author has based this research on contemporary evidence. This paper is different from other papers as it only takes under its umbrella the issue of mental health of health care workers who are working day and night for COVID positive patients. According to this research, the two main factors deteriorating mental health in the long term are no social support when a person is suffering from trauma and when such person is suffering from trauma is exposed to stressors (Brewin et al., 2010). There are six important elements to protect the mental health of health care workers some of which include: acknowledging the hard work of these workers, the staff not supporting these workers should be sent back home, new staff who is supporting and hardworking shall be induced within the workplace, managers of hospitals shall pay extra attention to these health care workers.
Rowlin, L. (2020). Mental Health and Well-Being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Article by Willis Towers Watson. Available at https://www.willistowerswatson.com/en-MY/Insights/2020/05/mental-health-and-wellbeing-during-the-covid-19-pandemic
This particular paper does not only talks about employees but also states the responsibilities of the employers to mitigate the new challenges and risks posed to the mental health of the employees during work and in the working environment. The Author writes down various responsibilities along with the duties to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Every paper mentioned above provided for issues faced by employees but this paper poses some responsibilities on the employer concerning the protection of employees. According to this paper, Change and Control are the most important factors that can cause a hazard to the working of employees. The employers in this regard have a responsibility to support and build strong relationships with the employees to reduce their stress (Government of the United Kingdom, 2020). The frontline workers should be protected first. There may also arise concern regarding loss of salary, the security of a job, change in the working environment, etc. All these concerns have to be looked into by the employer for not providing mental stress to the employees.
American College Health Association, (2019), American College Health Association: National College health assessment II: Reference group executive summary spring 2019, American College Health Association, available at https://doi.org/10.1080/24745332.2019.1620558
Brewin, C. R. et al, 2010, Outreach and screening following the 2005 London bombings: usage and outcomes, Psychol. Med. 40, 2049–2057 (2010).
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 2020, Pneumonia in Wuhan: Wuhan Nurses Cry Increasing Death Cases. 23 January 2020, available online: https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/chinese-news-51222564.
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al., 2020, The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence, Lancet 2020 Mar 14;395(10227):912-920 [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J, (2020), The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China, Psychiatry Research, 287, Article 112984, available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934 .
Cao, W.; Fang, Z.; Hou, G.; Han, M.; Xu, X.; Dong, J.; Zheng, J, 2020, The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China, Psychiatry Res. 2020, 112934.
Government of United Kingdom, 2020, Working Safely during Coronavirus (COVID-19), Guidelines for Workplace Environment, available at https://www.gov.uk/guidance/working-safely-during-coronavirus-covid-19 .
Gostin LO, Wiley LF, 2020, Governmental public health powers during the COVID-19 pandemic: stay-at-home orders, business closures, and travel restrictions, JAMA. 2020.323(21): 2137-2138.
Singh R, Goyal M, Tiwari S, et al., 2012, Effect of examination stress on mood, performance and cortisol levels in medical students, Indian Journal of Physiol Pharmacol, 2012;56(1):48–55.
Torales, J., Higgins, M. O., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A, (2020), The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Advance online publication, available at https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212.
Wang C, Pan, R., Wan, X, et al., 2020, Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China, International Journal on Environment and Public Health.2020; 17(5):1729.
World Health Organization: Coronavirus disease (COVID19) outbreak - technical guidance - EUROPE: mental health and COVID-19, 2020, available at http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-technical-guidance/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-outbreak-technicalguidance-europe/mental-health-and-covid-19 .
Young Minds, (2020), Coronavirus: Impact on young people with mental health needs, available at https://youngminds.org.uk/media/3708/coronavirus-report_march2020.pdf .
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