• Subject Name : Science and Maths

High‐pressure Inactivation of Enzymes

1. Food product in daily eating schedules consists of various ingredients. It is paramount that the developers must understand and know the functional and property aspects of all the included ingredients in the food items. Further, the interaction between the various ingredients is essential to know. There are hetero ingredients including fibres, protein, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, oil, water and skim milk powder etcetera. Soy beverage consumption had gained popularity across the globe. Soy milk is aqueous extract gathered from the whole soybeans. Soymilk consists of isoflavones, minerals and proteins that contribute to the antioxidant properties of soy drink. 100 ml of Soy milk consist of water, protein, fatty acid ( saturated, mono and polyunsaturated), carbohydrates, ash, fibres, calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorous. Soy protein consists of storage protein, for instance, glycinin and β-conglycinin. Glycinin has WNLNAN, WTY, GVAWWMY have an amino acid sequence. Further, β-Conglycininhave FESFFL, FQTLF, SYLQGF, TTYY, LFF, LY, IY amino acid sequence (Silván et al., 2014).

Additionally, various liquid breakfast formulations consist of starch- amylose. Amylose is a linear molecule aids in increasing the density of the food items. It is helical in shape and consist of alpha (1-4) glycosidic bond. Another starch structure is amylopectin; it is a branched molecule and contributes to low density in the food items. Further, amylopectin consists of alpha (1-6) glycosidic bonds. Amylopectin is organised as semi-crystalline structures and these granules impart the functional property of the starch. Starch can be used as an emulsifier or thickening agent in yogurt, soya milk, smoothies, and oat liquid breakfast. Starch when heated at or more than 60 degree Celsius leads to starch gelatinisation. Starch gelatinisation process can lead to irreversible physical and chemical changes, for instance, Maltese cross loss and granular swelling. Various starches can show different pasting and gelatinous properties because of amylose amylopectin ratios. Dietary fibres are also the main constituent of liquid food preparation. Cellulose is non-digestible fibre; polymer of cellobiose moiety. Due to non-digestible property of the cellulose, it can be used in the food industry by the inclusion of certain other materials, for example, Carboxymethyl, Hydroxypropyl and microcrystalline cellulose. Polysaccharides have many functional properties including viscosity control, thickening agent, stabilizer, and texture control.

Pectin is one of the common uses of emulsifier in the liquid breakfast. Pectin consists of a polymer of alpha-D- Galacturonic acid and methylgalacturonate. Amidated pectin (AMP) can be an effective emulsifying agent as it renders smooth and lumps free yogurt. AMP in the presence of calcium form gel and also the gel is thermoreversible in nature. AMP gels render better flavours in the mouth when added in the liquid breakfast preparation. Alginate is another substance that can act as a thickener in the liquid breakfast food items. Alginate can be collected from the brown seaweeds. They are the salts of alginic acid and consist of mannuronic acid (viscosity contributing factor) and guluronic acid (gel formulation factor) (Bai et al., 2017).

An amino acid is an important ingredient in the liquid breakfast. Gelatine and alginate together in the food item can interact with each other. At pH 6, gelatin A (positively charged) can interact with the alginate chain (negatively charged), however, gelatin B (negatively charged) can repel the negatively charged alginate moiety. A protein present in the food can show reaction such as denaturation under heat, force, different pH, and salt. Further, water such as monolayer, multilayer and free can be used as a solvent. In Liquid breakfast formulations with oat fibre consist of oat particles, sucrose, water, oil, and skim milk powder (Harasym&Olędzki, 2018).

2) Emulsifiers can be defined as the surface-active mediator that help in the interaction of immiscible phases, for instance, oil, water and air. Further, these substance aids in the stabilization and formation of the foams and emulsion. These substances are amphiphiles in nature, consist of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends. Hydrophobic end of the emulsifiers interact with the air and/or lipid and hydrophilic end intermingles with the water. Thickeners give verities of function, for instance, lubrication, crystal modification, aeration, starch complexing and protopectin etcetera (Bai et al., 2017).

Pectin is one of the common use of emulsifier in the liquid breakfast. Pectin consists of a polymer of alpha-D- Galacturonic acidandmethylgalacturonate. Pectin is naturally present in the and between the cell walls of the vegetable and fruit. It can act as a natural cementing substance and extract from the fruit and vegetables for use in controlling the consistency and texture of the food item. There is a requirement for the proper condition for the gelation process in the pectin. For low methoxy pectin, there is a requirement of the calcium and moderate pH (1 to 7 or greater than 7.0) for the gelation process. However, high methoxy pectin needs pH 3.5 or lower than 3.5 for gelation. High methoxy pectin does not require any calcium for the gelation process (Bai et al., 2017).

Additionally, alginate is another substance that can act as a thickener in the liquid breakfast food items. Alginate can be collected from the brown seaweeds. They are the salts of alginic acid and consist of mannuronic acid(viscosity contributing factor) and guluronic acid (gel formulation factor). Thickening and gelling properties of alginate depend on the absence or presence of calcium ions. Both pectin and alginate in the presence of calcium get into the gel form. Though, alginate in the presence of calcium forms a thermally irreversible gel (Yang et al., 2012).

3) Breakfast ideas and items in Australia are changing very rapidly. The manufactures need to come up with a new variation to respond to the consumers' needs and demands. The customers' demands for the speedy and less messy options for the breakfast, therefore, liquid breakfast comes into a frame. Liquid breakfast items have gained substantial popularity amongst the Australian population. Within a five year, maximum Australian has been shifted to liquid food items in their breakfast. The liquid breakfast includes drinkable yoghurt, spoonable yoghurt, cereal-based drinks, milk-based liquid breakfast drinks and cereal power liquid drinks etcetera (Nielsen, 2014).Ozcan (2013) had illustrated that yogurt is considered as the popular dairy product. Further, the yogurt has various non-Newtonian effects, for instance, yield stress, shear-thinning and viscoelasticity.In the market variety of yogurt are available. Therefore, it is paramount to evaluate the effect of various additional added ingredients on the physical and chemical property of the yogurt.

Arioui et al (2017) had conducted a study to evaluate the sensory and physiochemical quality of the yogurt consisted of pectin. By the authors, pectin had significantly decreasedthe pH values of the yogurt during the fermentation period. Moreover, the viscosity of the liquid yogurt with the pectin increases with fermentation time and post acidification time. The yogurt’s sensory quality was improved with increasing concentration of the pectin in the yogurt. Arioui et al had concluded that the pectin added in 0.6 per cent rate significantly enhanced the viscosity, cohesiveness and adhesiveness property of the yogurt.The viscosity of the yogurt with 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 per cent of the pectin was 3.5, 5.5, 12.7, and 12.93 respectively in the fermentation duration. During post acidification, the viscocity of the yogurt with 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 per cent of pectin was 33, 40.1, 42.3 and 45.35 individually.

Soymilk is another favourite liquid breakfast item of people across the globe. Terhaag et al (2013) stated that soymilk is extracted from the soybean which is a legume and having superb nutritional values. The pH values of various commercial soymilk is in the range of 6.7 to 7. Further, the TSS is 8.8-10.10 and viscosity varies from 15.8 to 26.6. Further, the authors had evaluated the hedonic score of commercial soymilk drinks and they illustrated that product with Hedonic score 7 was more acceptable as compared to the product with score 3.8. Further, lipid, protein, and TA values were 1.65, 2.34, and 0.77 respectively.

Further, Schiano et al (2017) had conducted the literature review with an aim of sensory examination of milk. The author had stated that the texture, flavour and visual characteristic of the milk are influenced by the fat content. Non-fat milk is less sweet, viscous and chalkier. Further, the fat-containing milk is lower in sour taste as compared to the non-fat milk. The similar findings were illustrated by McCarthy et al (2017). Moreover, the fortifying milk along with the dry milk powder extracted from non-fat milk aids in increasing viscosity and opacity of the milk.

Additionally, fruit juices and fruit smoothies are also instant breakfast option. It became a significant liquid breakfast item due to its health associated effects. Picouet et al (2016) had evaluated the effects of high pressure and thermal treatments on the sensory, nutritional and microbiological property of the fruit smoothies. The authors stated that smoothies have gained significant importance in the soft drink/ liquid breakfast market. Therefore, the industry uses high-pressure processing (HPP) techniques to obtain a good quality food item with affordable cost (Rodrigo et al., 2010). In accord to the results presented by Picouet et al., the effect of high pressure and moderate temperature did not lead to any changes on pH, TIS, TA and TSS changes of the fruit smoothies. In the storage day 0, the TSS, viscosity, pH and TTA values of untreated fruit smoothies were 12.4, 3.9, 3.5 and 5.6 respectively. Further, on storage 0 day, the value of TSS, viscosity, pH and TTA values of smoothies treated with high pressure were12.8, 3.9, 3.6 and 5.6 individually. Similar findings were observed after storage of smoothies for 21 days. Moreover, the authors had concluded that the HPP treated smoothies were shown less stability as HPP was not able to decrease oxidative enzyme activity. HPP restored original flavour and colour of the fruit smoothies. Moreover, on the nutritional evaluation of the food item treated with moderate heat and HPP were reveal degradation of vitamin values.HPP samples were less in favour index throughout the shelf life as people prefer to have sweetened drinks as compared to the acidic one (Sijtsema et al., 2012). Significance differences in sliminess had been observedbetween MH and HPP processed fruit smoothies. HPP treated samples were scored less sliminess intensity as compared to the MH processed food (Chakraborty et al., 2014).

References for Liquid Breakfast

Arioui, F., Ait Saada, D., &Cheriguene, A. (2017). Physicochemical and sensory quality of yogurt incorporated with pectin from peel of Citrus sinensis.Food science & nutrition, 5(2), 358-364.

Bai, L., Huan, S., Li, Z., &McClements, D. J. (2017). Comparison of emulsifying properties of food-grade polysaccharides in oil-in-water emulsions: Gum arabic, beet pectin, and corn fiber gum. Food Hydrocolloids, 66, 144-153.

Chakraborty, S., Kaushik, N., Rao, P. S., & Mishra, H. N. (2014). High‐pressure inactivation of enzymes: a review on its recent applications on fruit purees and juices. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 13(4), 578-596.

Harasym, J., &Olędzki, R. (2018). Comparison of conventional and microwave assisted heating on carbohydrate content, antioxidant capacity and postprandial glycemic response in oat meals.Nutrients, 10(2), 207.

McCarthy, K. S., Lopetcharat, K., & Drake, M. A. (2017).Milk fat threshold determination and the effect of milk fat content on consumer preference for fluid milk.Journal of dairy science, 100(3), 1702-1711.

Nielsen. (2014).From breakfast to ‘breakfaster': liquid breakfast buyers double over past five years, http://www.nielsen.com/au/en/insights/news/2014/frombreakfast-to-breakfaster-liquid-breakfast-buyers-double-over-past-fiveyears.html,

Ozcan, T. (2013).Determination of yogurt quality by using rheological and textural parameters.In 2013 2nd International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences-ICNFS (pp. 27-28).

Picouet, P. A., Hurtado, A., Jofré, A., Bañon, S., Ros, J. M., &Guàrdia, M. D. (2016).Effects of thermal and high-pressure treatments on the microbiological, nutritional and sensory quality of a multi-fruit smoothie. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(7), 1219-1232.

Rodrigo, D., Sampedro, F., Silva, A., Palop, A., &Martínez, A. (2010).New food processing technologies as a paradigm of safety and quality.British Food Journal.

Schiano, A. N., Harwood, W. S., & Drake, M. A. (2017). A 100-year review: Sensory analysis of milk. Journal of dairy science, 100(12), 9966-9986.

Sijtsema, J., Reinders, M. J., Hiller, S. R. C. H., &Guàrdia, M. D. (2012). Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences. British Food Journal, 114(7), 1032–1046.

Silván, J. M., Amigo-Benavent, M., &del Castillo, M. D. (2014). Antioxidant Properties of Soy-Based Drinks and Effects of Processing.In Processing and impact on antioxidants in beverages (pp. 225-232).Academic Press.

Terhaag, M. M., Almeida, M. B., &Benassi, M. D. T. (2013). Soymilk plain beverages: correlation between acceptability and physical and chemical characteristics. Food Science and Technology, 33(2), 387-394.

Yang, J. S., Jiang, B., He, W., & Xia, Y. M. (2012).Hydrophobically modified alginate for emulsion of oil in water.Carbohydrate polymers, 87(2), 1503-1506.

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