Systems Analysis and Design with UML


Class and Method Design.

Data Management Layer Design.

Human-Computer Interaction Layer Design.

Physical Architecture Layer Design.

SAD life cycle and methodologies.

Systems Analysis & Systems Design.


Specification and analyse:

System design:



Role of system analyst

Cost-benefit analysis.


Class and Method Design

While designing the smart mirror for smart home app, the most important thing is class and method design. It is the responsibility of the analyst to make a list of instructions and guidelines for one who do programming for the app that clarifies what the system will do.

After designing the structure and making the classes interaction of the smart mirror for smart home app. The classes of another layer depend on the problem domain. Other layers are data management, human computer interaction, physical architecture, and foundation layer. Hence, designing is necessary to design the problem domain accurately.

Class and method design is behavioural modelling and structural modelling. There are some questions that need to ask ourselves before making an app;

  1. Are all the class necessary to use in the app?
  2. Is there any missing class in the code?
  3. Are these classes are described well?
  4. Is there any attributes or methods missing?
  5. Do these classes contain unrequired methods and attributes?
  6. Is there any kind of conflict of inheritance?
  7. Can we reuse the code? If yes then how?

Figure 2. shows unified modelling diagram of the smart mirror for smart home app. It contains all attributes such as web user, customer, how the user make the payment and how the user orders the smart mirror with the help of app, what is order status of the clients, how many items are in line and all other details of the app mentioned in the app (Tzitzikas, 2005).

Data Management Layer Design

The main objective of the data management layer design is to get familiar with various formats of object-persistence, to get familiar with all the indexed used in the relational database. User should know the influence of non-functional needs of the data management layer. Data should be there in the smart mirror application because there is no use of application without information or data. Hence, data accurate data should be stored and accessed the properly (Gould, 2010). The layer must contain; manipulation logic and data access and design of storage. Designing of this layer is the four-step design strategy-

  • First developer needs to choose the format of smart mirror application
  • Then map the issue domain object onto the format of object persistence.
  • Developer needs to check the object persistence format with optimization
  • Manipulation classes and data access should be designed properly.

Some formats of object persistence; files can be accessed sequentially and randomly, relational database, object-oriented database, object relational database and NOSQL data stores.

For storing the data for the client app that is smart mirror for smart home, relational database is a good way to store the data. It has primary key that helps in identifying each row of the people wants to use this application. SQL is used to retrieve the data. Data can be accessed on the basis of active users and non-active users (Tzitzikas, 2005). 

Human-Computer Interaction Layer Design

Analysts should know how to complete the two most necessary activities in the phase of system design, as given in Figure1, designing the human computer interface with the help of designing database. It is a layer that helps in user can interact with the computers system and the inputs entered by the user and output produced by the system. It includes three main parts; first is mechanism of navigation, second is mechanism of input and third is mechanism of output. These three mechanisms are different but dependent closely on each other. So, mechanism of navigation, input and output design are coupled tightly (tutorialspoint, n.d.).

There are some principles of user interface design: -

  • Layout: the interface should provide the sequence of area on the screen that are used for distinct purposes and use consistently.
  • Content awareness: it is necessary for the user to know about what information is mentioned on the system.
  • Aesthetics: Interface used by the user should be functional. User should be careful while using the white space, fonts and colours.

User experience: it offers the ease of use and ease of learning to new user and non-technical background users.

Consistency: consistency helps in knowing the user before performing any function.

Minimal user effort: The interface of the smart mirror should be simple so that user can user it with less efforts (Dennis, 2005).

Physical Architecture Layer Design

This layer design helps in understanding about the physical architecture elements. It also helps in understanding various types of architecture such as server based, client based and client server. It is the layer, where analyst has to decide what application run on what software. In case of smart mirror for smart home, analyst need to decide which software runs on the app (Gould, 2010). The question arises, why there is a need of this layer in designing. The reason are as follows: -

  • Price of infrastructure
  • Price of development
  • Ease in developing the application
  • Capabilities of the interface
  • Security and control of the application
  • Scalability helps in changing the capacity and upgradations

In this design layer, analyst has to show the relationship among hardware elements of an information system. There are some elements in the deployment diagram, nodes are a piece of hardware such as computer of mobile of clients, relics are the piece of information that needs to installed on the node, and paths of communication, it is link among nodes (Tutorialspoint, n.d.).

SAD Life Cycle and Methodologies

If the application produces the high-quality and meet all the requirements of the user then the application reaches to the customer within the stipulated time with evaluation of cost also. These all things are done in the system with the help of effective SDLC which stands for system development life cycle. It also works efficiently and effectively within the system in the existing and scheduled information technology infrastructure. SDLC is based on the conceptual model which contains policies and processes for creating or making changes in the complete system in all the life cycles (Dennis, 2017).

This methodology is used to make an information system. It contains number of activities. These are given below: -

  • Planning
  • Designing
  • Defining
  • Building
  • Testing
  • Deployment

Systems Analysis & Systems Design

The SAD is the systems analysis and design. It is the procedure of creating an information system which helps in using the hardware, software, data, procedures, and workforce to work in the organisation’s objective effectively. It is the process of making plans to develop the smart mirror for smart home app by describing all its elements and modules that make the client satisfied. It can create in meta development tasks, that helps in addressing the issues.

Planning: in the planning phase, obstacles required to defined in the existing system. All objectives of the app should also be determined. It also confirms the feasibility of the app and helps in creating the schedule (Leszek, 2005).

Specification and analyse: in this phase, information should be gathered, analysed and validated. A prototype of app should also be defined and requirements also described in this phase. An SRS that is software requirement specification needs to be documented that specifies the requirement of software, hardware and functional network.

System design: this phase includes the design of application, databases type, user interface, network type and system interface.

Implementation: in this phase, design of all is implemented with the help of coding. In this, all the modules have to combine all together. A test report also generated to detect all the errors of the app.

Support: this phase contains all the activities like support of phone, in which system the app will work (Tutorialspoint, n.d.).

Role of System Analyst

A system analyst is the person that keeps all the information about the app and aware about all the policies and procedures of the app. This person is an expert who is having all the technical and communication skills to perform the tasks needed at each phase of the task.

  • Helps in defining the requirement of the app by finding all the facts about the app.
  • Analyst prioritize the needs of all based on the client requirements.
  • Analyst collects all the facts about the app from different opinions of the user.
  • Analyst maintains the evaluation of the app.
  • Analyst recommends various flexible solutions of the app
  • Analyst implements the modular logical design of the app
  • Analyst makes the changes in the app wherever required (Grudin. 2008).

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Cost analysis benefit is the process of the business that helps in analysing the decision. Before making a new app, wise managers carry out a cost benefit analysis to analyse all the possible cost and revenues that a business can produce with this app. The result of the evaluation will help in determining about the app’s feasibility. It checks, whether developing an app is feasible or company can afford developing another app. It also checks the rate of return of the developing project (Campbell, 2016).

References for Systems Analysis and Design with UML

Campbell, H. F & Richard, P. C. (2016). Benefit-Cost Analysis: Financial and Economic Appraisal Using Spreadsheets. Chapter.5. Available at:

Dennis, A., Wixom, B., Wixom, D and Wiley, T. (2017). Systems Analysis and Design with UML Version 2.0 (4th edition), Chapter 11

Gould, J. D, Boies, S. J, Levy, S, Richards, J. T. and Schoonard. J. (2010). The 1988 Olympic message system: A test of behavioural principles of system design. In J. Preece and L. Keller, editors, Human-Computer Interaction, chapter 12. Prentice Hall, Hemel Hempstead.

Grudin. J. (2008). Why CSCW application fail: Problems in the design and evaluation of organizational interfaces. In CSCW'88: Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pages 85-94, Portland, Oregon. ACM SIGCHI and SIGOIS, ACM, New York.

Leszek, A. Maciaszek and Wesley, A. (2015). Requirements Analysis and System Design (2nd edition). Chapter 5 and 6. (Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2020).

Tutorialspoint. (n.d.). System Development Life Cycle. Available at: (Accessed on 22nd Aug, 2020).

Tzitzikas, Y. (2016). Class and Method Design. Available at:

Tzitzikas, Y. (2017). Data Management Layer Design (II). Available at:

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Management Assignment Help

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