• Subject Name : Nursing

More than 20 Years Since the Wakefield Paper

This was the paper titled “More than 20 years since the Wakefield paper: Impact on vaccine hesitancy” presented by Wakefield et al., 1998. Several children were seen in this paper who lost their acquired skills including communication after getting vaccinated (Wakefield, et al., 1998). The inquiry was performed on a successive sequence of children who were having regressive developmental and chronic enterocolitis disorder.

There were many reasons associated with the retraction of the paper, amongst which one is that the authors in the study presented that vaccination boosts up the disease however, rendering to the World Health Organization, immunization is a real way to avert contagion in individuals (Fombonne, Goin-Kochel, O'Roak, et al., 2020). Vaccination is related to a higher risk of serious complications, and for individuals who reside with or treatment for high-risk persons. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a hormonal syndrome that affects substantial interaction, behavior, and societal disputes. In the study done by the CDC for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, they found that there is no connection between inoculations and autism (Colaizzo, 2016). The concern that Autism disorder is linked with vaccination to children receives according to authors of this article but there is no link between the development of Autism disorder and vaccines (Wakefield, et al., 1998).

Vaccine ingredients do not cause autism, however, the perspective of the authors n this study was that autism is getting involved in the children who have got vaccinated (Wakefield, et al., 1998). The component named thimerosal is a mercury-based additive that is used to avoid infection of multidose vials of inoculation. The scientific view of the Institute of Medicine proved that the evidence of experiments supports the denunciation of the causative connection between autism and thimerosal-including vaccines (Baumer & McGee, 2019, January). The nine studies were conducted by the CDC to find out that is there any relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder and thimerosal-containing vaccines. It was found from all the studies that there is no connection between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and Autism Spectrum Disorder in adolescents (Fombonne et al., 2020).

The authors believed and stated in this article that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is linked with the trigger of Autism Spectrum Disorder, but the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) does not support their view (Wakefield, et al., 1998). Autism Spectrum Disorder is the unit of neurodevelopmental defects that start in early youth. However, children taken in this article were of age 12 years. The disorder is weakening of social communication and other social difficulties that inhibit the person from behaving in a normal way (Wakefield, et al., 1998). Numerous genetic materials have been linked with the pathogenesis of ASD and mainly they are engaged in neural synaptogenesis. Conservation and other factors are correlated with gastrointestinal malformations and invulnerable disparity as per the sings of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

From a statistical point of view, the sample size selection was not done appropriately. As the formula to calculate sample size is ss (sample size) = . The statistical formula is followed because the results were found to generalize for the whole population (Baumer et al., 2019). So, randomly selecting a sample size is not an appropriate measure to generalize the results. Secondly, the sampling method is chosen as representative of the whole population (Nikmat, Fadzil & Idris, 2016). Probability sampling is the exact measurements if the study is done to draw some conclusions. There are three main techniques such as simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and systematic sampling that should be followed in the study to get suitable results and draw some authentic conclusions (Fombonne et al., 2020).

Hence, these points state the reasons for being distracted with all the controversy and evidence that has been emerged in this paper. There are lots of points as discussed for implications for public health in this essay.

References for Impact on Vaccine Hesitancy

Baumer, E. P., & McGee, M. (2019). Speaking on behalf of: Representation, delegation, and authority in computational text analysis. In Proceedings of the 2019 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society, 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1145/3306618.3314292

Colaizzo GR. Misinformed parents, unvaccinated children, and the fabricated vaccine-autism scare. Pediatrics and Health, 4(1). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Fombonne E, Goin-Kochel RP, O'Roak BJ, Abbeduto L, Aberbach G, Acampado J, Ace AJ, Albright C, Alessandri M, Amaral DG, Amatya A. Beliefs in the vaccine as causes of autism among SPARK cohort caregivers. Vaccine, 38(7), 1794-803. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.026

Nikmat, A. W., Fadzil, M. A., & Idris, S. (2016). Self-perceived anxiety symptoms and its associated factors among type 2 diabetic patients in rural communities of Malaysia. Journal of Clinical and Health Sciences1(2), 11-17. http://ir.uitm.edu.my/id/eprint/17137

Wakefield, A.J., Murch, S.H., Anthony, A., Linnell, J., Casson, D.M., Malik, M., Berelowitz, M., Dhillon, A.P., Thomson, M.A., Harvey, P., Valentine, A., Davies, S.E., Walker-Smith, J.A. leal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children The Lancet, 351. https://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140-6736(97)11096-0.pdf

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