Table of Contents
Introduction of HRM practices in the organization to increase employee engagement and motivation.
Findings from the analysis.
Reliability of data.
According to Naoki Senda(2018), new HRM practices have been included in the workplace in Japan, that offer the employees more perks such as maternity leaves, flexible work timings, working from home in order to help the employees have a stronger work- life balance, to ensure that the employees stay satisfied and motivated. The employees should be offered perks and incentives from the organization for all the work and the extra hours that they put in.
However, the author also further adds that the employees still feel an invisible pressure on their shoulders that goes up when they try to engage in more personal activities. Some of the reasons for this have been stated as hugely gender defined roles due to which many male employees are not able to leave work for more family time, inhuman working hours i.e. forceful overtime for employees, ambiguously defined job roles and boundaries that lead to low levels of coherence amongst employees. This leads to employees being bogged down by the work and not being able to perform to their full potential, making them inefficient and ineffective and leading to low performance levels that in turn reduces the profitability of the company.
Aktar and Pangil (2017) have found that the six HRM practices that have been used for the research have shown to have a positive effect on the employees and in making them more engaged and motivated to do their work.
They have also stated that HRM practices tend to increase the employee’s engagement when they are managed properly and have been introduced in an efficient manner within the organization.
Aktar and Pangil (2017) have also further added that HRM practices within the organization should be given the utmost priority and be focus upon in an adequate manner to help boost the satisfaction and engagement levels of the employees and makes them feel that the organization cares for their employees and their wellbeing.
Additionally it has been suggested HRM practices should be given priority and be given adequately focus on by the company for boosting the employees’ morale and engaging them. . Findings have supported that in case banks start introducing a structured HRM system only to help thier employees, the employees feel more satisfies and get a sense of belongigness and feeling included that helps in motivating them towards giving in their best at work and helping the organization grow.
The author has found that the findings are very similar to SET (Blau, 1986) which suggests that social exchange relationships are possible to be formed between the employees and the employer in companies. HRM practices, hence, are seen as ways to help employees be satisfied and increase their motivation to work harder through providing them social and economic security thus creating a safe environment, thus making employees want to feel obliged to pay back to the organisation in some way. (Cropanzano and Mitchell, 2005) The results also suggest that find that OC partially has a mediating affect.
As per Senda(2017) the JILPT (1996) has helped in pointing out that introducing IT tools within the organization leads an increase in the efficiency of getting work done as well as work that is self- contained, lesser supervision by their bosses. HRIS is a system that is used for acquiring, storing, handling, analyzing, sorting, distributing relevant information regarding human resources in a company. It includes technical aspects as well as individuals, procedures & policies, important information in managing HR function.
Introduction of HRM practices is not enough and there is a long way to go towards increasing the motivation levels of employees in the organization. Promotion of work-life-balance initiatives in Japanese organizations must go hand in hand with increasing the comfort level of employees in adapting to HRM practices. In case, the aims and targets that the employees are/ being subjected are very complex and they are not able to understand the scheme then there would be almost no effectiveness of the scheme and hence no alteration in behaviours.
The limitations of this study could be that it has taken into consideration only 6 HRM Practices for understanding employee engagement and looks at only one part of the the factors within the organization for explaining the variances of engaging employees. There could have been many other factors that could be used in explaining the variances of the variances of engaging employees better. Researchers in the future could include other antecedents for engaging employees like leadership qualities, organizational culture & politics.
The data for the study has been collected by the cross- section method which does not allow the researcher and the HRM practices in establishment of a key causal relationship between the variables being studied as it does not fit as a suitable way for measuring changes in the key variables over a period of time thus making it inappropriate in finding the casual relationships between variables (Cohen et al., 2013).
As compared to the AHRI model of excellence, Aktar& Pangil (2017) and Naoki Senda(2018) have both found in their researches that employee motivation through better HRM practices are essential for ensuring the well- being of the employee and hence, the organization. As per the model, it can be found that an organization must in all ways be professional, future oriented but alongside also be collaborative, understanding and caring towards its employees, as employees are the people who run the organization and manage all operations efficiently and thus the organization should also in return, give them perks and incentives to inculcate in them a sense of belongingness. Contingent pay could also be used as a motivating factor for employees that would help in measuring individual employees’ performances and how much they contribute to the organization in terms of their work or the profits that the organization gains because of them (Ogbonnaya, Daniels & Nielsen 2017). Both the researches have also been done within the period of the last 5 years which states that the data is current and up to date and can be relied upon as according to on-going trends and employee emotion and reactions.
Ogbonnaya, C.,Daniels,D and Nielsen,N. (2017).Does contingent pay encourage positive employee attitudes and intensify work?. In Human Resource Management Journal, Vol 27(1).
Cropanzano, R. and Mitchell, M.S. (2005).Social exchange theory: an interdisciplinary review.Journal of Management. [Online]. [Accessed on:25th July 2020]
Blau, P. (1986). Exchange and Power in Social Life, Routledge, New York, NY, pp. 1-372.
Aktar and Pangil .(2017). Mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationship between human resource management practices and employee engagement.Does black box stage exist? International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy Vol. 38 No. 7/8. [Online]. [Accessed on 25th July 2020]
JILPT, 1996. A survey report on the progress of IT and corporate response to future social trends. [Online]. [Accessed on 25 July 2020]
'HRIS impacts implementation in a SME: a contextualist longitudinal case study. (n.d.).[Online]. [Accessed on 25 July 2020]
Senda,N. (2017). A study of the relation between the changes of working style with it use and the employee's work-life balance. In Eurasian Journal of Business and Management, 6(3)DOI: 10.15604/ejbm.2018.06.02.003
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