Q1- (i)- Thermoregulation is the self-regulatory mechanism of the body to keep the body temperature normal, in accordance with the environmental temperature. However, the normal body temperature might not change that much with the aging of the person. With the advancing age, the tendency of the body to be able to control the body temperature might get difficult. An elderly individual might take twice the time longer than a younger person, in order to get the body temperature back to normal. Shivering and peripheral vasodilation can be deemed as an example of the involuntary temperature regulation mechanism of the body (Fu 2016, pp. 189-200). This tendency to not being able to maintain body temperature usually reduces after the age of 50 years.
As the age progresses not only the blood vessels get more and more dilated, the blood circulation also impedes speed as compared to a younger individual. The fat deposit beneath the skin layer plays a vital role in temperature regulation. This body fat gets reduced and decreases considerably in amount, making it difficult for the body to stay warm on its own (Xiong 2019, pp. 117-122).
(ii)- For maintaining thermoregulation for Katherine her body might make use of three main mechanisms as follow:
Q2- (i)- Fracture can be deemed as a discontinuity of the structure of the bone cortex (Vennin 2017, pp. 233-242). It might also bring about an injury to the surrounding tissues of the particular joint at which the fracture has occurred. Immediately after the fracture the healing process begins and it is mainly divided into four different stages as follow:
However, in older patients, the process can be a little delayed. These age-related changes might hamper the healing process of the bone. The outcomes can be in the form of delayed healing and increased morbidity.
(ii)- The three main factors that may have contributed to Katherine getting easy fracture after falling can be as follow:
Q3- (i)- The two main functions of bile are digestion and absorption.
(ii)- The ability of the liver to metabolize various substances, let alone bile can reduce with the aging process. Also, there can be few drugs that might not get inactivated quickly in elderlies, as they might get in their younger counterparts. With the advancing age, the liver might also not be able to withstand the stress it is being subjected to, leading to the reduced bile production in the body. With reduced bile production the mechanism of digestion, absorption, and elimination can also alter. Due to insufficient excretion of toxins out of the body, there can be damage to the other organs. The repair process also slows down with the increasing age. Due to reduced or hampered bile production, the person might also develop gallstones (Hegyi 2018, pp. 1983-2023). Patients can also develop drug-induced cholestasis. This can evidently lead to drug toxicity in severe cases. The patient might have symptoms such as high-grade fever due to infection and chest palpitations or generalized discomfort due to reduced digestion as well as absorption.
Q4- Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common deficiencies observed in elderlies, especially after the age of 60 and above. Females are more affected by this deficiency as compared to their male counterparts. Osteoporosis and vitamin D also has a direct correlation in elderlies, in terms of depreciating values. Vitamin D can also be deemed as the most effective and appropriate treatment method for elder individuals (Hill 2017, pp. 89-95). With the lack of exposure of sunlight, as given in our case scenario, as Katherine stays in the home only, there are greater chances of developing vitamin D deficiency. It is also impossible to compensate for the levels of vitamin D through nutritional resources only. There is always the dire need for additional supplements required for treatment purposes.
It is also vital for the elderly to have a good intake of calcium to help maintain bone strength and keep the bones healthy and intact. Intake of calcium is also important in reducing the chances of fracture in the patient. It also enhances the process of bone mineralization, bone formation, and healing of microfracture. Calcium intake is also important for Katherine for enhancing bone mineral deficiency and thus, lowering the risk of osteoporosis and its harmful effects on the patient (Reid 2019, pp. 468-473). Calcium intake is also important for improving muscle action. It helps with the easy contractibility and relaxation of the muscles. It is also important to promote the strength of muscles to support the joints and thus, promoting balance and coordination.
Bahney, C.S., Zondervan, R.L., Allison, P., Theologis, A., Ashley, J.W., Ahn, J., Miclau, T., Marcucio, R.S. and Hankenson, K.D. 2019. Cellular biology of fracture healing. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 37(1), pp.35-50. https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.24170
Chen, M.L., Takeda, K. and Sundrud, M.S. 2019. Emerging roles of bile acids in mucosal immunity and inflammation. Mucosal Immunology, 12(4), pp.851-861. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-019-0162-4
Cheung, W.H., Miclau, T., Chow, S.K.H., Yang, F.F., and Alt, V. 2016. Fracture healing in osteoporotic bone. Injury, 47, pp.21-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(16)47004-X
Clark, D., Nakamura, M., Miclau, T., and Marcucio, R. 2017. Effects of aging on fracture healing. Current Osteoporosis Reports, 15(6), pp.601-608. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-017-0413-9
Copple, B.L., and Li, T. 2016. Pharmacology of bile acid receptors: Evolution of bile acids from simple detergents to complex signaling molecules. Pharmacological Research, 104, pp.9-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2015.12.007
Franceschi, C., Ostan, R., Mariotti, S., Monti, D., and Vitale, G. 2019. The aging thyroid: a reappraisal within the geroscience integrated perspective. Endocrine Reviews, 40(5), pp.1250-1270. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2018-00170
Fu, M., Weng, W., Chen, W., and Luo, N. 2016. Review on modeling heat transfer and thermoregulatory responses in the human body. Journal of Thermal Biology, 62, pp.189-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2016.06.018
Hegyi, P., Maléth, J., Walters, J.R., Hofmann, A.F. and Keely, S.J. 2018. Guts and gall: Bile acids in the regulation of intestinal epithelial function in health and disease. Physiological Reviews, 98(4), pp.1983-2023. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00054.2017
Hill, T.R., and Aspray, T.J. 2017. The role of vitamin D in maintaining bone health in older people. Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease, 9(4), pp.89-95. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1759720X17692502
Laroche, M., Pécourneau, V., Blain, H., Breuil, V., Chapurlat, R., Cortet, B., Sutter, B., and Debbie, Y. 2017. Osteoporosis and ischemic cardiovascular disease. Joint Bone Spine, 84(4), pp.427-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2016.09.022
Ma, T., Xiong, J. and Lian, Z. 2017. A human thermoregulation model for the Chinese elderly. Journal of Thermal Biology, 70, pp.2-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2017.08.002
Reid, I.R. and Bolland, M.J. 2019. Controversies in medicine: the role of calcium and vitamin D supplements in adults. Medical Journal of Australia, 211(10), pp.468-473. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50393
Schlundt, C., El Khassawna, T., Serra, A., Dienelt, A., Wendler, S., Schell, H., van Rooijen, N., Radbruch, A., Lucius, R., Hartmann, S. and Duda, G.N. 2018. Macrophages in bone fracture healing: Their essential role in endochondral ossification. Bone, 106, pp.78-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2015.10.019
Vennin, S., Desyatova, A., Turner, J.A., Watson, P.A., Lappe, J.M., Recker, R.R., and Akhter, M.P. 2017. Intrinsic material property differences in bone tissue from patients suffering low-trauma osteoporotic fractures, compared to matched non-fracturing women. Bone, 97, pp.233-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2017.01.031
Welcome, A.K., Rizzuto, D., Laukka, E.J., Johnell, K. and Fratiglioni, L. 2017. Cognitive and physical function in relation to the risk of injurious falls in older adults: A population-based study. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72(5), pp.669-675. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw141
Xiong, J., Ma, T., Lian, Z., and de Dear, R. 2019. Perceptual and physiological responses of elderly subjects to moderate temperatures. Building and Environment, 156, pp.117-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.04.012
Zanker, J., and Duque, G. 2019. Osteoporosis in older persons: old and new players. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), pp.831-840. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15716
Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help
Proofreading and Editing$9.00Per Page
Consultation with Expert$35.00Per Hour
Live Session 1-on-1$40.00Per 30 min.
Doing your Assignment with our resources is simple, take Expert assistance to ensure HD Grades. Here you Go....
Min Wordcount should be 2000 Min deadline should be 3 days Min Order Cost will be USD 10 User Type is All Users Coupon can use Multiple