Economics and International Trade


(A) GDP Contribution

The 3 months to the end of may 2020 saw a change in how people in Australia buy goods. Lockdowns inside. Big increases in online retail sales have resulted in limits on physical stores. Pursuant to around march and may, the bureau of statistics ( abs) saw a rise of $2.9 billion from of the same in 2019. The practices of This industry (Australian Bureau of Statistics,2020) funded a large part of this e-commerce distribution at the same period last year. roughly 82 percent of Australia's e-commerce by volume goes on the basis of prior study. Delivery network by This industrys.5 we calculate that the activities of This industry enabled an incremental of $2.4 billion .during covid-19 crisis, in e-commerce. This figure was obtained using the rise in online retail spending during recent times and the estimated exposure of This industry to e-commerce

The disease outbreak has compelled Australia 's transformation (Australian Bureau of Statistics,2020) to online shopping, that had been progressing slowly. Last year, shopping online was projected by This industry to compensate for 16 to 18% of all retail spending by 2025. Although, in April, with 5.2 million people internet shopping, This industry moved the aim ahead. By the end of this fiscal year, it now expects 15 percent of all consumer investment being in the online market.

In the 12 months to July, NAB merchant results show a 62.6 percent rise in online shopping.That number towers above preliminary data from the Bureau of Statistics, which in the very same time frame indicates a 12.2 percent rise in conventional shopping.

Affected Part of Economy Due to Covid 19

The Government spending part or section G of the the economy will be affected by this pandemic as Govenrnment ( Australian National Accounts,2020) ahs sanctioned various funds for curbing the effects of this pandemic. Govt. has also initiated various parcel services or funds for revival of physical retail business at this time.

Effect on Economy

As shown by data the overall economy will decline worst in compare to the recent years .But the overall growth propelled by online retail businesss ( Australian National Accounts,2020)  will increase to some positive extent. The GDP will take time to curb the regress of COVID 19. But online retail/ business is helpful in early revival of economy and increase in GDP.

(B) Unemployment Due to Covid 19

ABS estimates indicate that nearly 600,000 Australian employees, around 3% of the jobs, lost their employment during March and April. Our analysis (Australian Bureau of Statistics,2020) suggests that these reductions were centered among young people, losing their homes to nearly one was in three (28 percent) employees aged 18-24.

Whilst also things have changed since then (only with end of lockdowns in most jurisdictions), the jobs rate of young Australian adults remains just below 60% (although with substantial variations between states).

On highest point of that, half of the adults aged 18-24 who managed to maintain ones jobs mostly during pandemic were shown to have had their average working hours cut. This is compared to a third of employees aged 25 or over.

Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy reflects (RBA ,2020), state spending policies that affect economic activity. Via monetary policy, in an effort to predict the economies, regulations aim to lower the levels of unemployment, manage inflation, stabilise market cycles and impact asset prices.

(A) Actions Taken

One--week deferral of the due date for the month jobkeeper payment agreement, starting in june 2020, was granted by the commissioner of taxation. In order to validate(RBA ,2020) the employer's working conditions and qualifications for payment, the jobkeeer declaration now has to be performed between the 1st and 14th day of each month, but this is not a re-test of compliance. Job seekers ought to assert, as part of the statement: their qualifying staff, even if workers change or leave their jobs, their present and expected profitability (or substitute turnover factor) of goods and services tax (gst) .the earliest a corporation can file its monthly document for the month just past, the earlier jobkeeper periods (measured by fortnights) for that month are reimbursed to the worker.

On 7 April 2020, the National Cabinet(RBA ,2020) approved the Mandatory Code of Conduct (the Code) for qualifying commercial tenants and the national government and Territory subsequently published mechanisms for enforcing the Code 's framework and financing the rent relief necessary.

(B) Nature of Policy

The actions taken out by government for curing the effect of COVID 19. These actions seems to be favorable to public. These may be expansionary to the desired business or industry taken in concern . For government it is also expensionary as they provide relief to people by allowing tax relief, rent relief and job work place measures that assure no financial lose to worker of jobseeker.

Monetary Policy

(A) Actions Taken

In March 2020, the Reserve Bank Board (Debelle G ,2020)twice cut the funds rate to 0.25 per cent. This boosts the cash flow of corporations and the entire village market. It also benefits the trade-exposed industries of Australia by means of the exchange rate.

The Reserve Bank has held the overnight cash rate across recent years. The Bank has expanded this by further pursuing a risk-free interest rate and along yield curve as well. The Board announced a 3-year Australian government bond yield objective of approximately 0.25 percent to reduce overall borrowing costs throughout the market.

The Fed has introduced a variety of additional initiatives(Debelle G ,2020) with other central banks to meet the increased demand for US dollar funding. In the exchange rate swap market, US dollars, which play a central role in international trade and investment, have become much more costly to lend.

To improve cross-border access to US dollars, the Fed activated, expanded, lengthened maturities and lowered the cost of existing foreign exchange swap lines with central banks.

(B) Nature of Action

This policy is easy (Debelle G ,2020), because it lowers the rates of taxes levied prior to the pandemic outbreak . this policy will provide relief to the people by giving tax relief, and will supply the more US dollar to increase liquidity.


 This industry directly contributed $1.008 million in value added during the three months to May 2020.This industry currently funded an average of 34,200 full-time equivalents (FTE) during the same timeframe. Each season's employment. This industry employed an average of 36,600 individuals each in headcount context. This involves contract workers and project managers from This industry. This industry also funds indirect flow-on operations in other areas of the industry in addition to these direct participation. Economy, including postal and delivery systems, including vendors

Conclusion on The Economic Society of Australia

 After reading or concluding all the analysis aspect taken here , we came on to this conclusion that the online retailing may be a very befitting business if it taken in good terms while it can also be a devastating business for the physical stores. As person would not like to go out for various need purchasing’s. As we adapt to the coronavirus (COVID-19) difficulties, online retail shopping will play a vital role for the retail industry and will create sustained improvement to customer behaviour. Even before the current setting, stores were preparing for the rapid growth of e-commerce in 2020. As a part of the coronavirus (COVID-19), the sector should anticipate to see two consecutive waves of rapid growth in e-commerce. The length, intensity and time in between waves of acceleration will depend on the efficacy of local and global development and social crisis management initiatives. And through these waves, distinct groups will be shaped negatively. 

There might not be a strong one unless there is idle potential in the economy (such as displaced labour). The link between economic benefit of an organisation as calculated by value added (or any other static added value) and the group's health or cost of living. Was during crisis of COVID-19, Well above the-average level of available land in the economy is prone to come, and this might lead to higher levels of capacity.

This sector can give a very amount or contribution to the overall GDP of Australia. It can trigger the increase or revival of the GDP of Australia. The government is also providing help by easing tax rates or by moratoriums. The current fiscal policy adopted by the government to curb the impact of Covid-19 seems to be perfect measure to ease the living od people at the time of this outbreak.

 Recommandations on The Economic Society of Australia

Here, some recommendations can be made . theta government should felicitates the online shopping but also work for the revival of shopping stores at the outskirts or in the main part of city because there are some shopkeepers who are uable to sell products due to online shopping. 

By use of labour and capital by the industry 's requests comes as a result of ability as it may be

Lessen the number of available income to buy on other financial growth. The online retail shopping can help in revival of economy so govt also put some restrictions or security to this market. The Govt. must supply the liquidity to a great extent to get the desired out by the firms.

References for The Economic Society of Australia

See Debelle G (2020), ‘The Reserve Bank's Policy Actions and Balance Sheet’, Speech to The Economic Society of Australia, 30 June. Available at: <>.[1]

For details, see RBA (2020), ‘International Financial Conditions’, Statement on Monetary Policy, May, viewed 6 August 2020. Available at <>.[2]

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Retail Trade (April 2020) cat. 8501.0

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables (June 2020) cat. 5209.0.55.001

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Economics Assignment Help

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