Applied Bioscience for Critical Conditions

Table of Contents


Epidemiology of congestive cardiac failure.

Treatment for the patient

Supporting patient with congestive cardiac failure diagnosis.


Introduction to Effectiveness of Blood Pressure-Lowering Drug Treatment

Congestive heart failure is a type of condition in which a heart is not able to sufficiently supply the body with all the blood which is required in order to maintain homeostasis. This condition is due to other cardiovascular complications like interaction lung disease or any kind of hypertension. Left sided heart failure which offers more frequently As compared to the light side. Creating some of the symptoms like shortness of breath as well as irregular heart Rhythm that can be understood with Compensatory mechanisms in the body. This compensation always starts with a decrease in systemic flow of blood due to the increased peripheral resistance or any kind of concession in the parliamentary system of the body. Moreover, this reduced blood flow to the Kidneys will stimulate the release of some of the hormones like renin and aldosterone This always increases the workload of the heart by increasing the volume of blood as well as the peripheral resistance along with vasoconstriction (Cai et al. 2020). The main objective of this report is to understand the various aspects of congestive heart failure as well as its different epidemiology. In this section there will be a discussion on the treatment for those patients suffering from this chronic disease as well as the nursing care plan to support the patient. 

Epidemiology of Congestive Cardiac Failure

At the present time it is estimated that there are more than 480000 Australian who are affected by heart failure and over 60,000 new diagnoses made every year by the country. Due to the continued aging among the Australian population it is expected that the burden associated with heart failure on the health as well as primary care will be increased by 20%. In Australia GPs Healthcare providers who co-ordinate as well as monitor the care of patients with heart failure including the follow-up referral towards specialists here like cardiologist or renal physician. However there has been a paucity associated with the information related to the epidemiology of heart failure in Australia. There are many studies that have been conducted on heart failure in Australian primary care settings as well as a study that aims to understand the prevalence as well as the annual incidence related to heart failure in the general Australian community. Moreover in order to describe the democratic as well as key professional clinical profile associated with heart failure (Cheung et al. 2019). These trials were carried out because the incidence and prevalence of heart failure of Australian data were inaccessible. On the basis of the findings from outside the world , at least 300 000 Australians are reported to be experiencing congenital heart disease which is approximately 4% of the population over 45 and 60,000 new cases currently are registered in the country. Moreover two key obstacles exist to determine the occurrence and prevalence of heart problems in Australia, particularly if the patient's health is mild. They are due to the lack of a widely recognised definition and the diagnostic difficulties.

In the last few decades, both males and females have dropped at the rates of hospitalisation and death due to heart failure. Moreover, this kind of friendship is also recorded by Overseas countries. Moreover, apart from the strength in the total population, the rate associated with the hospitalization and death from congestive cardiac failure among the Aboriginal or Torres Strait islander If always remained 2-3 times higher as compared with the other Australians living in the country. Apart from that, population and improved survival rate Heart Attack as well as increased prevalence associated with diabetes and increase the number of people who are suffering from heart failure in the future as well. However recent Falls among the incidence of heart attack as well as it has been seen that there has been a continuous improvement in the control of blood pressure among most of the patients who are suffering from these kinds of diseases may stem from expected increase (Con et al. 2020). 

Treatment for The Patient

Heart failure is one of the chronic diseases that require lifelong management. with proper treatment all the signs and symptoms associated with heart failure can improve as well as it becomes stronger. with the correct treatment any patient may help to live longer as well as it reduces the chances of dying suddenly. It has been seen that all the Healthcare professionals can correct the failure of heart by treating all the underlying causes. In some cases the doctor recommends surgery in order to treat the underlying problems that can lead to congestive cardiac failure. Some of the treatment has been studied and used in certain people that include using implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The ICDs have been used for a decade in order to treat the patients who are suffering from heart diseases. It is one of the first pacemakers that was implanted over 40 years ago as well as the implantable defibrillator that was used in the early 1980. Doctors are capable of treating any patient with heart failure with ICD, as the patient is at significant risk of death at an irregular cardiac rhythm. In the chest, ICDs are small instruments which track the heart rhythm continuously. If ICDs can track a risky irregular heart rhythm, an internal electrical shock can be brought to the heart which is similar to a pedal shock outside of the body and, I hope, restore the irregular heartbeat. Abnormal heart Rhythm can cause 50% of all heart related deaths and with the help of ICDs doctors are able to provide better treatment to the patient suffering from congestive cardiac failure. However, there are some potential disadvantages of having ICD in the heart failure treatment (Glenister et al. 2020). It has been found out that it is quite painful as well as anxiety provoking to get a shock from a box inside the chest. Some people find it troublesome if it happens regularly and it becomes potentially fatal in terms of abnormal heart rhythm. Also, there are some studies that have been conducted that show even after getting two shocks the anxiety among the people went too high which is quite difficult to stabilize by this specialist who is treating these kinds of conditions. One of the other aspects, though, is that people who get shocked are sometimes fortunate that it does not work and has saved their lives. However, ICDs are also used to integrate with other devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy for the treatment of heart failure.

Supporting Patient with Congestive Cardiac Failure Diagnosis

There are several resources that have been developed in order to help to educate the patient suffering from heart failure to understand their present condition as well as to recognise the signs and symptoms As well as find out the information about the medication and the things that could make them feel better. All these resources included the new hat failure video series provided by the Heart Foundation for all the patients living well with heart failure booklets. apart from that there are three self-management tools that could be available which could be printed by the patient in order to identify their symptoms and self-manage their condition. One of the resources that can be utilised by the patient in order to diagnose their congestive cardiac failure is by evaluating their blood pressure at home. With the help of blood pressure patients are able to understand their present situation as any kind of disturbance in blood pressure could be a sign of heart failure so it is important to talk with the doctor in order to manage the high blood pressure (Ho et al. 2018). 

With the help of this service patients are able to monitor their blood pressure at home which is a good way to understand how the blood pressure changes during the day from one day to next. In response to the life flight changes as well as medical treatment. By identifying the regular blood pressure measurement the general practitioner can recommend some of the measurements that could be taken at home as well as it would suggest the next general practitioner visit in the hospital. If find anything unlikely then and the general practitioner would be able to change the treatment based on the reading that has been found by the patient while managing his blood pressure at home (Yu & Sunderland, 2020). 

Conclusion on Effectiveness of Blood Pressure-Lowering Drug Treatment

Based on the above section it can be concluded that Heart failure is one of the complex clinical syndromes that could be resulted due to structural heart disease order. The congestive cardiac failure which is a condition that weekend the heart and it is not able to pump the blood properly. However, with the help of some medication this kind of issue could be minimised it requires constant monitoring as well as proper medication. It has been seen that the prevalence associated with congestive cardiac failure the data associated with these disorders is absent in Australia therefore, it is required to individual studies that provided an opportunity to make an estimation related to the burden of heart failure.

References for Effectiveness of Blood Pressure-Lowering Drug Treatment

Cai, K., He, J., Wong, P. K., & Manolios, N. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on rheumatology clinical practice and university teaching in Sydney, Australia. Eur J Rheumatol, 10-5152. Retrieved from:

Cheung, N. W., Crampton, M., Nesire, V., Hng, T. M., Chow, C. K., & Western Sydney Integrated Care Program Investigators. (2019). Corrigendum to: Model for integrated care for chronic disease in the Australian context: Western Sydney Integrated Care Program. Australian Health Review, 43(5), 600-600. Retrieved from:

Con, D., Buckle, A., Nicoll, A. J., &Lubel, J. S. (2020). Epidemiology and outcomes of marked elevations of alanine aminotransferase> 1000 IU/L in an Australian cohort. JGH Open, 4(2), 106-112. Retrieved from:

Glenister, K., Archbold, T., Kidd, D., Wilson, S., &Disler, R. (2020). Health professional and patient perspectives of factors associated with potentially avoidable hospitalisations in a rural Australian setting: a qualitative study. Retrieved from:

Ho, C. L. B., Breslin, M., Doust, J., Reid, C. M., & Nelson, M. R. (2018). Effectiveness of blood pressure-lowering drug treatment by levels of absolute risk: post hoc analysis of the Australian National Blood Pressure Study. BMJ open, 8(3), e017723. Retrieved from:

Yu, J. J., & Sunderland, Y. (2020). Outcomes of hospital in the home treatment of acute decompensated congestive cardiac failure compared to traditional in‐hospital treatment in older patients. Australasian journal on ageing, 39(1), e77-e85. Retrieved from:

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