Applied Bioscience for Critical Conditions

Introduction to Congestive Cardiac Failure in Australia

Congestive cardiac failure is one of the major cardiac issues that are considered to be a complex condition which occurs due to the deterioration in the function or structure of the heart that leads to decrease fulfilment of systemic need (Malik et al., 2020). Congestive cardiac failure is classified based on the location of the issue in the heart that includes left ventricular, right ventricular and biventricular. The intensity of the congestive cardiac failure also classifies it into the acute and chronic that occur due to the risk factor and symptoms associated with the patient (Inamdar & Inamdar, 2016). The report is going to discuss the congestive cardiac failure and its different aspect that are important to understand the overall aspect of the disorder. The target population of the report will be the Australian population and the prevalence of congestive cardiac failure will be discussed in their contrast.

Epidemiology of Congestive Cardiac Failure

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2020) state that around 1.2 million that is approximately 5.6% individual in Australia above 18 year face one of the cardiac-related issues. The incidence of heart issue is more in men that is, about 6.5% when compared to the female which is about 4.8% that increases with the age. The congestive cardiac failure incidence rate is about 104, 900 people aged 18 or over faced heart failure that is estimated after the sell reported data and two-third of the population faced heart failure are 65 or over. The article presented by Chan et al. (2016) discussed about the current incidence trend of the congestive cardiac failure in Australian population that is about 6.9 per 1000 person per year are diagnosed with the congestive heart failure belong to 45 or above age group. The incidence rate is increasing in upward pattern to the particular age group of 55-74 years that increase the burden over the health care sector.

 Heart Foundation (2019) discussed that in a total of 16.6% of cardiovascular issue that prevalence of the heart failure is about 0.5% and one person in every19 minute is diagnosed with heart failure that leads to the increase hospitalization rate. The article presented by Sahle et al. (2016) added that in the prevalence of the heart failure in the developed country is about 1-3% rising and end up to 10% but the age group that is mostly affected by the heart failure includes 75 or older that are not routinely reported. The heart failure also leads to the increasing health care spending that increases the burden over the health care sector which is about 1-3%. Victoria State Government (2020) discussed about the different aetiology related to the congestive heart failure which increases the prevalence of the disorder. The different aetiology factors include obesity, unhealthy eating, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, excess alcohol consumption and social or emotional wellbeing. These aetiology factors are directly responsible to increase the risk for the congestive heart failure. The findings supported by Ziaeian & Fonarow (2016) by adding that some other risk factor for the congestive heart disease includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and ethnic disparity. Some other aetiological factors include hyperlipidaemia, smoking, increasing age and pre-cardiovascular issue.

Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure

The article Presented by Chia & Foo (2016) discussed one of the treatment options that are important to deal with the congestive cardiac failure which is implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The researcher added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are important to decrease the chances of cardiac death or progressive pump failure that can increase risk for the mortality of the patient. The article also discusses that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are devices that are important to detect and terminating the tachyarrhythmia that occur due to the different risk factor associated with congestive cardiac failure. The researcher added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are implanted subcutaneously in the chest. The researcher is added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators is important to back up the bradycardia pacing that is important to improve the heart rhythm monitoring. The findings supported by Stoevelaar et al. (2020) added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are a very important treatment option for the heart failure patient as it helps to restore the normal heart rhythm that reduces chances of complication. The researcher added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators can detect the issue with the normal rhythm of the heart and after the detection, it sends signals to improve the rhythm that is followed by the shock to the heart to normalize the functioning. The article also added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators is considered to be the helping hand of the patient encountered with the heart failure to keep a track on the fluctuation of the heart rhythm that is important to maintain to decrease complication.

The study presented by Balci et al (2015) discussed the patient perspective related to the use of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators and its benefit concerning to the heart failure state. The researcher added that after the evaluation it was revealing that implantable cardioverter defibrillators have been important to improve the heart function. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators help the patient encountered with the heart failure to maintain the normal rhythm that helps to decrease the complication. Other advantage discussed in the article about the implantable cardioverter defibrillators is it helps to decrease the symptoms associated with heart failure and increase the relief of the patient. These advantages discussed by the researcher are important to understand the utility of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators in the patient faced heart failure to improve the health status to support the deterioration or any secondary heart episode.

Moreover, the article presented by Abbasi et al. (2016) discussed that certain limitations are associated with the implantable cardioverter defibrillators that increase complication for the patient. One of the limitations of the device discussed by the researcher includes the patients encounters pain due to the shock produce by the implantable cardioverter defibrillators that increase the discomfort of the patient. The researcher also added that implantable cardioverter defibrillators are costly that decrease the ability of the individual to avail it to improve heart functioning. Device malfunctioning also discussed as a limitation in the article as it decreases the chances of restoring the normal rhythm of the heart which lead to the increase heart complication for the patient. The article also added that sometimes patient with heart failure state fear due to the shock produce by the implantable cardioverter defibrillators that increase the mental as well as the physical issue with the patient wellbeing. The limitations discussed in the article indicate that these can set back the utility of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators in the clinical setting due to the increase discomfort of the patient which increase the reluctant behaviour toward it use to improve heart rhythm. 

Resource for Congestive Cardiac Failure

Different resources are available to help the patient encountered with the heart failure in Australia and one of them is Heart Support Australia. The Heart Support Australia is a national-level organization that aims to help the individual encountered any negative heart-related issue. They have formed different groups of the volunteers to provide the support at ground level and they are addressing patient from remote, regional and the rural area to empower them (Heart Support Australia, 2020). The organization is helping the patient diagnosed with the heart diseases to avail right program and services which are important to support the health that leads to a better quality of life which decreases chances of secondary heart disorder event. The different activities that are organized to improve the support for the patient include a social event, guest speakers, recreational activities, hospital visits and other support services. Different branches are set up by Heart Support Australia to improve the accessibility of the population toward the right services they provide are to improve their heart and health. The different support services that are offered by the Heart Support Australia which includes HS-A branches, interest group, online support and newsletter that help to cover different aspect support required by the different Australian population (Heart Support Australia, 2020).

Conclusion on Congestive Cardiac Failure in Australia

The report can be concluded by adding that the epidemiology of the congestive cardiac failure in the Australia indicate that major section of the population has been diagnosed with the cardiac event. The Congestive cardiac failure has increased the patient health-related complication and hospitalization expenditure which increase the burden over the health care sector. The implantable cardioverter defibrillators is one of the preferred treatment for the patient diagnosed with heart failure as it helps to improve the rhythm of the heart to improve the health of the patient. There are certain limitation and benefit associated with the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators thus need to be implemented after the patient and health care providers concern. One of the organization individual with the congestive cardiac failure in Australia can refer to is Heart Support Australia and they can help the patient by empowering them to improve the quality of the life.

References for Congestive Cardiac Failure in Australia

Abbasi, M., Negarandeh, R., Norouzadeh, R. & Shojae Mogadam, A. R. (2016). The challenges of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A qualitative study. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal18(10), 1-6.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Cardiovascular disease. Retreived from:

Balci, K. G., Balci, M. M., Akboğa, M. K., Sen, F., Açar, B., Yılmaz, S., Ediboğlu, E., Maden, O., Selcuk, H., Selcuk, M. T., Temizhan, A. & Aydoğdu, S. (2015). Perceived benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation among heart failure patients and its relation to quality of life: A cross-sectional study. Cardiology and Therapy4(2), 155–165.

Chan, Y.-K., Tuttle, C., Ball, J., Teng, T.-H. K., Ahamed, Y., Carrington, M. J. & Stewart, S. (2016). Current and projected burden of heart failure in the Australian adult population: A substantive but still ill-defined major health issue. BMC Health Services Research, 16(501), 1-10. 

Chia, P. L. & Foo, D. (2016). Overview of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure management. Singapore Medical Journal57(7), 354–359.

Heart foundation. (2019). Key Statistics: Heart Disease in Australia. Retreived from:

Heart Support Australia. (2020). About Us. Retrieved from:

Inamdar, A. A. & Inamdar, A. C. (2016). Heart failure: Diagnosis, management and utilization. Journal of Clinical Medicine5(7), 60-62.

Malik, A., Brito, D. & Chhabra, L. (2020). Congestive Heart Failure. Treasure Island, United Kingdom: StatPearls Publishing.

Sahle, B. W., Owen, A. J., Mutowo, M. P., Krum, H. & Reid, C. M. (2016). Prevalence of heart failure in Australia: A systematic review. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders16(32), 1-6.

Stoevelaar, R., Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, A., van Bruchem-Visser, R. L., van Driel, A. G., Bhagwandien, R. E., Theuns, D. A. M. J. & van der Heide, A. (2020). Implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life: Future perspectives on clinical practice. Netherlands Heart Journal. 

Ziaeian, B. & Fonarow, G. C. (2016). Epidemiology and aetiology of heart failure. Nature Reviews Cardiology13(6), 368–378.

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