• Subject Name : Management

The Key Concept in Assessment and Quality

The interactive learning environment is useful to improve the knowledge and understanding concerning the concept that is important for the individual. The interactive learning helps the learner to improve the understanding in a better growing environment. There are different aspect of learning assessment and quality assurance is very important to analyse the knowledge of the individual (Ceresia, 2016). Assessment is one of the methods that are important to judge the knowledge of the learner and evaluate the individual understanding of the set bases. The assessment helps the judges to analyze the individual knowledge is up to the expected result that is important to address the goal (Hayward, 2015).

Quality assurance is important to enhance and maintain the quality of the learning and it includes the participation of different system, policies. Quality assurance is considered to be checklists that help to achieve the quality by changing internal and external factor. The quality assurance is important to justify the quality of work that will help to improve the assessment process of the work (Williams, 2016). Both the assessment and quality assurance lack in some space that is increasing biases in the system and decrease chances of accurate results. There are different issue when it comes to assessment and quality assurance that need to be addressed to improve the evaluation process. The essay is going to discuss these issues to understand the gap in the system so that proper evaluation can be performed for accurate results. The essay will describe how different issue hampering the quality of assessment and quality assurance that is important in the learning process.

The assessment process is considered to be an important process for the identification of the knowledge of the learner. They are important to improve the educational policy and learning procedure that aim to strengthen the learning process. The assessment method is important in the learning process as it helps to evaluate individual knowledge and understanding.

The theoretical concept behind the assessment is always confused with many other terms like evaluation or measurement. The actual assessment process is considered to be an operational part of the educational system that is important for the student assessment. Different stages are used in the assessment process and each step is important to maintain the accuracy of the result. The different stage includes collecting, measuring, analysing, synthesizing and interpreting the result concerning the individual performance. The assessment processes help the teacher to identify the then different layer of the learning outcome (Wright & Homer, 2017). 

The theoretical concept of the assessment also reveals that assessment is important due to its huge application in the education system. Some of the areas that have been associated with assessment include a decision about the educational policy, decision about the curriculum of the learning and decision about the student. The right assessment starts with the grounding that includes identifying the purpose, resources and constraints concerning the assessment. The next step includes initial development of assessment criteria followed by the pre-publication after which it undergoes the review process and the last step is validation. These step help to frame a perfect assessment framework that is important to evaluate student learning (Ghaicha, 2016).

Different approaches are utilized for the assessment and one of the approaches is the traditional assessments that work as per the process-oriented process. The traditional assessment processes provide little answer option to the student and it relies on memorization of the facts. There are many issues concerning the traditional assessment process that includes a lack of understanding concerning the thought process of the student and it provides fewer chances to the student to put forward their perspective. The traditional process includes the multiple-choice question, matching or true or false (Nasab, 2015). One the other hand modern approaches for the assessment are reframed to address the gap of the traditional assessment method. Different modern approaches have been framed concerning the need of the student and learning pattern. One of the modern approaches is the diagnostic assessments that help to identify the strength and weakness of assessment. The diagnostic assessment includes both formative and summative assessment to evaluate the individual learning progress. The authentic assessment approach is the second one that works by linking the learning with working that helps the student to understand the use of their learning in professional skills development. It also helps the student to understand the gap in their learning that need to be addressed to improve their educational curriculum performance. The last modern approach is scenario-based assessments that demand the situational awareness skills of the teacher to provide feedback to the student concerning the current scene (Ewing, 2017).

Programmatic approach of the assessment is considered to be most advance as it helps to evaluate each student learning as a single data that improve the assessment decision. The programmatic approaches integrate the feedback process that can be quantitative or qualitative depending upon the type of assessment. It is considered to be the holistic views of the assessment as it treats the different individual as per their learning pattern. The neutrality of the programmatic assessment is an important feature of the method that directly depends upon the individual aspect under the assessment process. The approaches help the faculty to perform the assessment that is necessary for the evaluation of the student learning (Vleuten, 2016).

Different issues directly limit the accuracy of the assessment process and it hampers the evaluation process. Three issues that are directly associated with the assessment process includes the lack of relationship between purpose and format of assessment. The methodologies of the assessment follow four steps but there is a lack of connection between these steps that hamper the assessment. Another issue that is associated with the assessment is the lack of policy concerning the curriculum that directly impacts over assessment process. Lack of equity is considered to be one of the issues in the assessment that lead to the inequitable assessment practice (Nortvedt & Buchholtz, 2018). Moreover, another study presented by Vlachou, & Hui, (2018) describe that there is also a lack of integration of the formative and summative functions in the assessment process that are necessary to evaluate the knowledge. These two methods are useful as the formative function is important to enhance learning and summative function is important to summarize the learning. The author has also discussed the lack of teacher assessment literacy can also be one of the key issues when it comes to the assessment process. The lacks of assessment literacy directly hamper the evaluator ability to set parameters that are important for the evaluation process. 

The study presented by Siegel et al. (2019) discussed that lack of understanding between the teacher and learner can also influence the assessment process that will directly hamper the result accuracy. One of the issues that are identified by the author is that it is different between student need and teacher delivery that leads to a gap in the learning which directly impact the assessment. Another issue that has increased the complication for the assessment process is lack of the support to the student at multilevel that decrease the understanding the which affect the assessment process. The third issue that was observed after the study is lack of culture of the classroom that supports the assessment to improve learning.

One of the researches presented by Benzehaf (2016) discussed that the education system has changed to improve the learning process of the student and standards-based approach has been utilized to improve the educational pattern. The issue comes from the assessment point of view, as it is following the traditional practice that lacks an educational standard. The teacher involved in the assessment process only concerned about the grades associated with assignments that directly neglect the important component of the right assessment process. Some of the issues in traditional assessment process include low quality of assessment framework, lack of testing competencies, lack of feedback process and lack of communication toward the different aspect of the assessment. The traditional assessment is not able to cope up with the diverse educational learning thus it increases the complication for the assessment.

The article presented by Adedoyin & Chisiyanwa (2018) also discussed some of the issues that have been deteriorating the assessment practice. One of the central education activities that are important to judge the learning outcome is assessment but it is also not up to the mark. Many issues have increased compilation of the assessment practice includes a limited strategy for assessment, non-challenging quality of the test items, less structured assessment, less structured assessment process, weak marking of assessment criteria and lack of fair assessment. These factors have directly impacted the assessment processes that hamper the results.

Moreover, the article presented by Moges (2018) described that assessment is important in evaluating the learning and it helps the teachers to set parameters that are important for the assessment process. Students generally face an issue during the assessment process due to poor assessment process framework that hampers the quality of the work. The different limitation discussed by the author includes poor implementation plan for assessment, quality of learning doesn’t match assessment, misbalance of the three educational domains, lack of motivation to validate the learning of the student and lack of administration for the assessment.

Quality assurance is considered to be the activities that help the teacher to ensure that the quality of the work is as per the guidelines. Quality assurance helps to ensure that all the different section of the work are depicting excellent learning of the student. It helps to justify on-going development that occurred during the learning process. The quality assurance is a method with greater accountability that is considered to be a collective process that is utilized to ensure the quality of the educational process that is necessary to maintain the standards. It utilizes both internal and external constituents to evaluate the quality of work that will help to deliver a great outcome. The quality assurances help to ensure that the level of learning follows the principle that will help to satisfy the quality. The quality assurance is important to address two need of the learning process that includes changing the different section to improve quality and responsibility to improve the quality of the learning (Netshifhefhe et al., 2016).

The theoretical aspects of the quality assurance indicate that both internal and external quality check assurance system to maintain the quality concerning the Standard and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). The Quality assurance works over the three principles that include public accountability, management improvement and facilitation of innovation. Quality assurance is important to follow the code of ethics that is important to maintain the quality and other help to justify the learning principle. The external factors are evaluated by independent assessors and internal factors are evaluated by local assessors (Seyfried & Pohlenz, 2018).

There are two approaches to the quality assurance that can be utilized to improve the quality of the learning as per the guideline. One of the approaches that have been utilized for quality assurance is the general approach that includes the participation of the different offices for the evaluation process so that learning can meet the specific criteria of standards. The participation of the officials helps in the quality improvement process that is necessary to match the standards. The officials follow set guidelines to evaluate the quality and help to identify the gaps that need improvement concerning the quality (Manzanera et al., 2018).

Another approach that has been utilized to address the quality assurance in the learning is considered to be a specific approach. The specific approach considered to evaluate both learner and teacher aspect that is important for the quality check. The first step utilizes by the approach is the identification of the issue followed by corrective action. The third step is verifying the corrective action followed by the implementation of corrective action. These steps help to improve the quality of the learning that I necessary for the educational curriculum. The specific approach is considered to be important as it helps to evaluate both aspects that are important to improve the quality of the learning concerning the educational pattern of the student (Williams, 2016).

Many issues have been faced by the quality assurance process that hampered the process which leads to poor quality of learning. One of the important issues that increase issue is lack of communication that decreases the chances to communicate about quality assurance. The lacks of communication lead to poor coordination that directly hampers the quality of learning. Teacher and student coordination are requiring improving the quality of the learning concerning the learning principle. Communication is necessary to convey the proper requirement and need of the work that directly impacts the quality of learning. The commutations skills are important to convey the information thus lack of communication increase quality assurance complication (Sari et al., 2016).

Moreover, another article presented by López-Entrambasaguas et al. (2019) discuss that lack of vision for the quality of the learning is also one of the issues that increase the complication for the quality assurance. The lack of vision led to the poor quality of learning because of the lack of goal that directly decreases the quality of the learning. The quality assurances need to follow a goal that is SMART to achieve the standard that is maintained for the quality evaluation. The vision helps to improve the different aspects that are necessary to justify the required quality as per the learning pattern.

One of the studies presented by Kadry (2015) indicates that due to the decrease of management support quality assurance process can be hampered. The decrease supports of the management restrict the change that is required to improve the quality of the learning that is one of the important steps for quality assurance. The management support help to improve the different educational process that can help to improve the quality of the learning that is the major aim of the quality assurance program. Quality assurance requires equal participation in the management and student to improve the quality of learning.

The lack of transparency concerning the standards of the quality is also one of the increases the chance of hampered quality of the learning. The standards are framed to improve the understanding of the teachers as well as student concerning the set pattern that is necessary to improve the quality. The lack of knowledge concerning the standard decreases the knowledge of the student that is required to match as per the quality of the learning. The decrease transparency of the standards directly decreases the chance to justify the quality of learning as per standard (Geoffrey, 2014). On the other one of the study presented by Ryan (2015) discussed that the quality assurance model is one of the major factors that will help to improve the quality of the learning. The lacks of understanding concerning the quality assurance mode decrease the chances of evaluation of the design, content and section the learning. The decrease understanding concerning the model increases the risk for the hampered quality that is not acceptable as per the standards. Another issue that also increases the issue for quality assurance includes lack of research skills that are necessary to improve the quality assurance practice. The research helps the student to understand the requirement of external and internal quality assurance team to justify their expectation from the quality of the learning.

Sometimes due to lack of pedagogical skills quality assurance face issue that leads to the hampered quality of learning. The lacks of planning concerning the quality assurance increase the chances that the result that appeared does not meet the requirement of the quality of standards. Pedagogical skills are important to connect the teaching with the practice that is important to improve the quality and teacher lacking pedagogical skills directly deteriorate student learning. The learner behaviour also has an impact on the quality assurance process and the irrelevant behaviour lead to the decreased quality of learning. Different factors directly impact the individual behaviour thus they also influence quality assurance. Some of the factors include family background, demography, intellect and interest these can decrease or increase the quality of the learning (Olibie et al., 2015). These factors are directly responsible to decrease the implementation of the quality assurance that is important to deliver the quality as per standards. Quality assurance is considered to be important to improve the learning of the student.

The essay discussed the assessment and quality assurance process that are important to analyze the learning concerning the educational pattern. The assessment is considered to be important in the educational curriculum to identify the learning of the student concerning the teaching pattern. Different approaches have been utilized to improve the assessment of the student to identify the level of learning. Some of the approaches are the traditional assessment approach, diagnostic approach, authentic assessment and scenario-based assessment approach. These approaches have been utilized to evaluate the learning of the student that is important to modify the different factors. Different issues directly hamper the assessment process that includes lack of relationship between purpose lack of equity, lack of classroom culture and format of assessment.

In conclusion, quality assurance is important to maintain the quality of the learning that is an important educational curriculum. Quality assurances follow the model to improve the practice that is important to justify the quality of the learning as per the standards. Two approaches have been utilized by the quality assurance to improve the quality of the work. The two approaches that have been utilized for quality assurance are general and specific those are based on the individual involved. Different issues have been associated to increase complication of the quality assurance program. Some of the issues include lack of management support, poor communication, pedagogical skills and lack of vision for quality. These factors are responsible for deteriorated quality that occurs due to the incompatibility of the quality assurance process.

References for The Key Concept in Assessment and Quality

Adedoyin, O. O., & Chisiyanwa, L. (2018). Issues in assessment practices at Botswana private tertiary institutions as perceived by undergraduate students. Asian Journal of Education and E-Learning, 6(1), 20-32. https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJEEL/article/view/5242

Benzehaf, B. (2016). Exploring teachers’ assessment practices and skills. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 4, 1-18. DOI: 10.21449/ijate.254581.

Ceresia, F. (2016). Interactive learning environments (iles) as effective tools for teaching social sciences. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 217, 512–521. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.02.031

Ewing, B. (2017). An exploration of assessment approaches in a vocational and education training courses in Australia. Empirical Research in Vocational Education and Training, 9(14), 1-18. DOI:10.1186/s40461-017-0058-z

Geoffrey, N. M. (2014). Challenges of implementing quality assurance systems in blended learning in Uganda: The need for an assessment framework. HURIA JOURNAL, 18, 87-99.

Ghaicha, A. (2016). Theoretical framework for educational assessment: A synoptic review. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(24), 212-231.

Hayward, L. (2015). Assessment is learning: The preposition vanishes. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 22(1), 27–43. DOI:10.1080/0969594x.2014.984656

Kadry, S. (2015). Quality-assurance assessment of learning outcomes in mathematics. International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education, 4(2), 37–48. DOI:10.4018/ijqaete.2015040104

López-Entrambasaguas, O. M., Calero-García, M. J., Díaz-Meco-Niño, A. M., & Martínez-Linares, J. M. (2019). Quality assurance in nursing education: A qualitative study involving students and newly graduated nurses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(1), 240.  DOI:10.3390/ijerph17010240

Manzanera, R., Moya, D., Guilabert, M., Plana, M., Gálvez, G., Ortner, J., & Mira, J. J. (2018). Quality assurance and patient safety measures: A comparative longitudinal analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(8), 1568.  DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15081568

Nasab, F. G. (2015). Alternative versus traditional assessment. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(6), pp. 165-178.

Netshifhefhe, L., Nobongoza, V., & Maphosa, C. (2016). Quality assuring teaching and learning processes in higher education: A critical appraisal. Journal of Communication, 7(1), 65–78. DOI:10.1080/0976691x.2016.11884884

Nortvedt, G. A., & Buchholtz, N. (2018). Assessment in mathematics education: Responding to issues regarding methodology, policy, and equity. ZDM Mathematics Education, 50, 555–570 (2018).  DOI: 10.1007/s11858-018-0963-z

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Seyfried, M & Pohlenz, P. (2018). Assessing quality assurance in higher education: Quality managers’ perceptions of effectiveness. European Journal of Higher Education, 8(3), 258-271, DOI: 10.1080/21568235.2018.1474777

Siegel, M. A., Cite, S., Muslu, N., Murakami, C. D., Burcks, S. M., Izci, K., & Nguyen, P. D. (2019). Attending to assessment problems of practice during community-centered professional development. International Journal of Educational Research, 95, 190–199. DOI:10.1016/j.ijer.2019.02.012

Vlachou, M. A., & Hui, S. K. F. (2018). Classroom assessment practices in middle school science lessons: A study among Greek science teachers. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-19 DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2018.1455633

Vleuten, C.P. A. (2016). Programmatic approach to assessment. Medical.Science.Education, 26, 9–10  DOI: 10.1007/s40670-016-0343-7

Williams, J. (2016). Quality assurance and quality enhancement: Is there a relationship? Quality in Higher Education, 22(2), 97-102, DOI: 10.1080/13538322.2016.1227207

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