• Subject Name : Nursing

Indigenous People in Australia

Table of Contents

Indigenous people in Australia are still disadvantaged relating to health/health services.

Engage in strategy development or recording as well as explains the process of putting in place and to overcome access, equity, as well as the disadvantages associated with the issues that are needed to make health services culturally safe.

Requirement of Cultural safety used to develop strategies appropriately.

List of the resources required to address these issues.

Why is it necessary to make sure greater accountability on the part of funding bodies, government agencies, and health providers?.

How it is possible and why it might be essential to advocate for anti-racism..


Indigenous People in Australia Are Still Disadvantaged Relating to Health/health Services

Due to the poor quality of health and health situations, Indigenous Australians might be probable to use health services more than their counterparts. However, more recent data indicate that their average access is only slightly higher. Here are some of the reasons why Indigenous Australians are disadvantaged when it comes to health and community services: Health services are not accessible to Indigenous people, they are forced to travel long distances in search of healthcare. This is to their disadvantage because health issues include some emergencies and some close monitoring calling for extra care which the indigenous people do not enjoy. Besides, indigenous people are not well represented in the health sector due to the inadequacy of Indigenous people, so they do not have an option with the physician they talk to (Browne et al., 2016).

The stolen generation is another reason why indigenous peoples are deprived of Australia. Not knowing family history or the ones related to the possible cause of health problems. During the Maralinga nuclear test, aborigines were exposed to radioactive radiation purposely to examine the effects of radiation on the human body and its health effects. For nearly six decades from 1910 to 1970, an approximate of hundred thousand children from Aboriginal community was taken by force or by coercion from their family unit by law enforcement or wellbeing officers. Maximum children were under aged even accounted to be below five who were deprived of their rights of communicating in their mother tongue and meet their families. Here the main aim of including indigenous children was to uphold the European culture and to destroy their primitiveness (Griffiths et al., 2019). Most of these children grow up in unsympathetic surroundings with little to no cultural personality. Even as an adult, they underwent anguish plus are seen to be still enduring till date. There are many causes of health problems in this population, such as depression, assault, suicide, drug and alcohol abuse, and crime. This cycle goes from their parents to their child, hence the persistence of health problems. Until recently, there was still no record of the family identities and family medical records of the aboriginals which raise issues when looking for medical services (Taylor & Guerin, 2019).

Historical and Contemporary Issues

The largest and most persistent health inequalities observed while assessing the aspects associated with the citizen’s health. These includes the dissimilarity in their educational, occupational, employment, as well as living conditions, there are as well noticeable dissimilarities in health among people who come from various racial or aboriginal setting and who contain dissimilar physicality or psychological competencies. Australia based Aboriginals have relatively poor health in almost all age groups. These includes the all the areas associated with life expectancy, cardiovascular ailment, grievances, chronic illness, breathing sickness, poisonings, as well as hospitalizations. This poor health condition has noteworthy flow-on consequences, including minimized educational results and elevated rates of joblessness. Countless chronologically presented events are happening that have an impact on the indigenous people. Recently, in particular the wellbeing as well as admission associated with the healthcare services. Aboriginal people continue to be the least healthy small people in Australia, regardless of the number of developments in quarters of health services in current years. Alcohol intake and smoking tobacco remain major sources of wellbeing troubles for the aboriginal populace along with elevated blood pressure and poorer than suggested everyday vegetable and fruit consumption (Griffiths et al., 2019).

Engage in Strategy Development or Recording as Well as Explains the Process of Putting in Place and To Overcome Access, Equity, as Well as The Disadvantages Associated with The Issues that Are Needed to Make Health Services Culturally Safe

There is a need for publicizing and inviting additional Indigenous natives in the direction of request intended for health services. They encourage teaching courses associated to assist the Indigenous population to increase. The preparation is necessary to participate in context to health services. It is necessary to generate services that can aid in the expanse that ought to be covered to benefit from health services for instance (minibuses, traveling along with the medical services), finally when coming up with a new health service facility for people who live in the rural areas, make sure that the location of the facility is somewhere that can be easily accessed without any restrictions (van Gaans & Dent, 2018).

Requirement of Cultural Safety Used to Develop Strategies Appropriately

Based on this information, as most of the indigenous people live in remote areas of the country, various steps need to be taken to ensure cultural protection through the development of appropriate strategies. Some negotiations would be concerning the ownership of ancestral land by the indigenous communities. Since the aboriginal community does not have a written record of their ancestral land, they need to be assisted and protected and their rights recognized. The government should take some steps to reduce the need for indigenous people to prove their land claims. Education is also important for any culture. Indigenous peoples have the right to education so that they can represent the country in terms of employment. Although efforts to improve indigenous education have improved, there are still low figures among indigenous peoples. In the case of empowerment, the employment vacancies of the indigenous people should be properly determined. Indigenous people's social attitudes should also be addressed as this is one of the major challenges among indigenous peoples. Reconciliation is important in establishing a better perception of indigenous culture and coming up with stronger relationships within the whole community (Rice et al., 2016).

List of The Resources Required to Address These Issues

Minibuses, traveling medical services, localized clinics, empowerment sites. These resources can be best appropriated by them being made available to the Aboriginal residents to aid in their access and acceptance of health care services. Bringing services near to them will help them to access services in large numbers compared to records. Having empowerment sites for consultation will also help to enlighten the population on the need to access health care (Thomas et al., 2019).

Why Is It Necessary to Make Sure Greater Accountability on The Part of Funding Bodies, Government Agencies, and Health Providers?

Accountability is important to funding agencies as well as the government and other healthcare providers because citizens will always hold them accountable for this responsibility. The effectiveness of these entities should be clearly explained to the public as to what they plan to achieve, as it allows citizens to exert political pressure where the action is absent. Openness is essential as it makes it easier to identify areas that need more effort once the previously applied measures fail to produce the required results. When previously implemented activities do not yield the desired results, it becomes easier to identify areas that require more effort. Rules are a good way to ensure that what is being said and that funds are being used in the right way and that things need to be addressed to improve (Browne et al., 2018).

Awareness associated with the ways of developing the aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander’s history as well as their cultures as incorporated in the work practices: Recognize and esteem the influence of events and matters in indigenous and in the history of Torres Strait Islander throughout service delivery. Express familiarity of and show reverence for the variety of customs, skin, and different language groups, kin arrangements, talent, and belief in Aboriginal cultures as an element of service delivery (Thomas et al., 2019).

Consciousness associated with the ways an individual’s cultural realities can impact his/her self’s work practices: Make sure that work performances applied in a cross-cultural framework are found in an understanding of the aspects of one's culture as well as the cultural truths associated with others. Discuss suitable policies to efficiently contain cultural variations in the place of work. Recognize and make use of resources to aid successful service delivery across different cultures. Categorize the probable impact of cultural issues on service release to Indigenous along with Torres Strait Islander customers. Deal with cultural truths to make an easy full contribution in service delivery by Indigenous clients and co-workers (Meehan et al., 2016).

Workers can develop effective and respectful communication, consultation, and negotiation procedures with members of a diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: Take note of communication matters and make sure they are tackled to build up and uphold efficient dealings with Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander people. Utilize suitable communication tactics to sustain a culturally secure environment for the liberation of health services. Discover unproductive or unsuitable communication plans and alter them to maintain the liberation of health services. Spot and make use of resources to aid efficient communication inside the workplace. Employ the services of Indigenous and Torres Strait Islander health personnel, interpreters, and equals as cultural agents as necessary to meet the responsibility of care (Rice et al., 2016).

People can be instrumental in reflecting their cultural safety in the context of their workplace as well as in their professional relationships: Make sure workplaces, as well as expert relations, are in relation to mutual reverence, acceptance associated with diversity. Not only is this collective cultural wellbeing perceptive is also recognized. These types of recognition are vital to issues that are instrumental in controlling the workplace as well as proficient relationships. This relationship is further maintained amongst the Indigenous Islanders of Torres Strait based customers as well as co-workers. Discover and devise an efficient strategy to expand and sustain effective associations with Aboriginal colleagues and clients as suitable. Take accountability for checking strategies to aid in the settlement of any complexity, dissimilarities, or misconceptions that may arise (Browne et al., 2018).

Working partnership in the company of Aboriginal as well as the Torres Strait Islander people as well as the communities: Extend along with putting into practice strategies in the direction of boosting indigenous as well as Torres Strait Islander citizen’s participation in health service liberation. Recognize and identify resources to advance effective affiliation with Aboriginal people, organizations, and societies. Hold up the improvement of effective associations between staff, Aboriginal people, along with their societies that help them to facilitate convenience, affordability, responsibility, tolerability of suitable healthcare, and agency services (Browne et al., 2018).

Service providers can take cultural issues like self- determination and focus on considering the services along with its increased participation: Guarantee access associated with health care, programs, as well as services that reflect ethnically safe along with correct practice. Make sure health care programs promote autonomy and social control to guarantee better health results.

Indigenous people’s participation in the evaluating services are needed to be encouraged and their needs are to be negotiated in regards to the desired outcomes: Inquire from Indigenous as well as Torres Strait Islander natives that also include the societies according to the viewpoint on health care. They refer to the type of services they are in need to sense the ways they think has to be enhanced (Carson et al., 2020).

How It Is Possible and Why It Might Be Essential to Advocate for Anti-Racism

An inequality in morbidity, as well as death rates, lies in between the Aboriginal along with the Indigenous Islanders of Torres Strait. It is also instrumental in including other Australians that continue to be documented at an improper rate. Although for many years this information isn’t new and is under investigation. Not only are these, Aboriginal Australians deprived by a variety of socio-economic as well as health indicators. This includes racism exposure toward the adverse health effects associated with their health in all areas of contemporary Australian society.

Education can be the key to eradicating racism against indigenous peoples in health and elsewhere. There are currently several educational frameworks to enhance the knowledge, as well as the associated perspectives. It also takes into consideration the aspect of skills associated with those of the undergraduate medical students as well as that of the healthcare providers. Education is instrumental in including frameworks of the program for the students of medical science and nursing, the ones studying occupational therapy, including the psychology students. This type of policy framework is intended for the culturally appropriate form of depicting healthcare, communication, as well as cultural knowledge associated with anti-racism (Meehan et al., 2016).

As stated by Lodenstein et al. (2017), counseling and building partnerships between academia, healthcare, and the indigenous community is an integral part of training healthcare professionals to advise clients on contributing to improved health outcomes. In the Aboriginal context to embrace new knowledge, all the policymakers as well as the health specialists must effectively need to negotiate in their professional relationships. An effective and efficient form of communication is considered to be a priority. This type of communication is not limited to just one language instead of that it includes many aspects. Like those of professionalism, appreciation of differences, as well as community involvement to promote a caring attitude. Not only this it develops an understanding, as well as acceptance in all cultural spheres, are required to mitigate racism.

The socio-political willpower in the direction of changing inequities is based on race. It is in the context of the system of health care. It is further considered to be vital in making culturally possible effective delivery of health services. The board in context to the Article 24 associated with the 2007 UN’s Declaration on Indigenous People’s Rights. Cultural education can achieve this, emphasizing thoughtful healthcare practice, reducing the underlying description of racist violence, and improving the health of Indigenous Australians (Carson et al., 2020).

References for Enhancing Health Care Equity with Indigenous Populations

Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C., Ford-Gilboe, M., Wathen, C. N., Smye, V., Jackson, B. E., ... & Wong, S. T. (2018). Disruption as opportunity: Impacts of an organizational health equity intervention in primary care clinics. International Journal for Equity in Health17(1), 1-16. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0820-2

Browne, A. J., Varcoe, C., Lavoie, J., Smye, V., Wong, S. T., Krause, M., ... & Fridkin, A. (2016). Enhancing health care equity with Indigenous populations: evidence-based strategies from an ethnographic study. BMC Health Services Research16(1), 544. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1707-9

Carson, B., Dunbar, T., Chenhall, R. D., & Bailie, R. (Eds.). (2020). Social determinants of Indigenous health. Routledge.

Griffiths, K., Coleman, C., Al-Yaman, F., Cunningham, J., Garvey, G., Whop, L., ... & Madden, R. (2019). The identification of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in official statistics and other data: Critical issues of international significance. Statistical Journal of the IAOS35(1), 91-106. doi: 10.3233/SJI-180491

Lodenstein, E., Dieleman, M., Gerretsen, B., & Broerse, J. E. (2017). Health provider responsiveness to social accountability initiatives in low-and middle-income countries: a realist review. Health Policy and Planning32(1), 125-140. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czw089

Meehan, T. M., Harvey, H. B., Duszak, R., Meyers, P. M., McGinty, G., Nicola, G. N., & Hirsch, J. A. (2016). Accountable care organizations: what they mean for the country and for neurointerventionalists. Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery8(6), 654-657. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011809

Rice, E. S., Haynes, E., Royce, P., & Thompson, S. C. (2016). Social media and digital technology use among Indigenous young people in Australia: a literature review. International Journal for Equity in Health15(1), 81. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-016-0366-0

Taylor, K., & Guerin, P. (2019). Health care and Indigenous Australians: cultural safety in practice. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Thomas, L., Parker, S., Song, H., Gunatillaka, N., Russell, G., & Harris, M. (2019). Health service brokerage to improve primary care access for populations experiencing vulnerability or disadvantage: a systematic review and realist synthesis. BMC Health Services Research19(1), 1-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4088-z

van Gaans, D., & Dent, E. (2018). Issues of accessibility to health services by older Australians: a review. Public Health Reviews39(1), 20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40985-018-0097-4

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