• Subject Name : Nursing

Introduction to Behaviour Change

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Reference List

Introduction to Emotional Eating and Weight in Adults

Health and wellness is determined by different factors among which the hereditary factors are uncontrollable. Though there are some factors that can be controlled by the human being to regulate the health and wellbeing of that person. The current study will discuss about the consequences of poor nutrition habits and the benefits to change the same based on the evidences gathered from existing literature. Depending on the information gathered, strategies for changing behaviors will be developed supported by evidences which will include self planning and self management skills.

Discussion on Emotional Eating and Weight in Adults

Theme 1: Determinants of Healthy Nutrition habits

There are a number of factors that work behind the nutritional habits of a person. As per the Ecological Model conceptual framework, an individual’s intrapersonal factors, social factors such as interpersonal relationship, setting of the community and some specific attributes of a person such as the gender play important role in determining the nutrition habits (Sogari et al., 2018). A similar research conducted by Amore, Buchthal & Banna, (2019) has demonstrated that larger barriers to the healthy nutrition habits of a person especially a student include nutrition knowledge deficit which is an individual factor. Additionally, peer pressure which can be considered as an environmental influence also determines unhealthy nutrition habit of a person. The unsupportive community setting such as lack of availability of nutritional food and cost included as a macro-system can work as barriers to healthy nutrition habits.

On the other hand, both the studies mentioned above have recognized the role of individual knowledge and parental support as the main factors facilitating healthy nutritional habits of a person. These are the factors that promote healthy eating habits. Apart from these two factors the large enablers of healthy nutritional habits include an institutional environment or community setting that constantly offers healthy habits. Social media has been recognized as a strong source of influence for healthy nutrition habits in the modern era. With the increased concern of people worldwide for healthy living, the urge to consume healthy food and leading healthy lifestyle has come to a trend. Therefore, social media can be considered as a highly viable platform that works as an enabler for healthy nutritional habits.

However, Sarpooshi et al., (2020) considers that all the facilitating factors of healthy nutritional habits do not work as enablers for every individual and vice versa. Some factors may work as enablers for a set of people which can act as barriers for the others. For instance, peer pressure can lead some people to indulge in unhealthy nutritional habits while others to lead a more healthy life.

Theme 2: Possible consequences of continuing poor nutrition habits

Continuing with poor nutritional habits such as eating unhealthy meals, not being involved in physical activities and not getting enough sleep my lead individuals to develop obesity or overweight. Obesity might increase the risk of an individual to develop heart diseases along with type 2 diabetes and some types of cancer also. Additionally, Apovian (2016) found that obesity might lead to higher health cost of an individual.

Medical researchers have shown that high blood cholesterol and high blood pressure are the two main reasons behind heart diseases and stroke. A study conducted by Benjamin et al. (2019), confirms that consumption of high amount of sodium is the cause of high blood pressure which increases risk of experiencing stroke and develop heart disease. In addition to this, hypertension can take place as a result of poor nutritional habits. Overweight and obesity may increase risk of women for being affected by 13 types of cancers including endometrial (uterine) cancer, colorectal cancer and others.

Another condition that can be observed among the youth as a result of poor nutrition includes Osteoporosis. This condition may lead the bones to become brittle as the bone mass may decline. This may especially take place in the 20s and 30s of both men and women (Hara et al., 2018). Until this age, bones are formed and after this age it deteriorates. Moreover, poor nutritional habits may also lead to gout. This condition leads to building up uric acid in the joints in the form of crystal. This may lead to permanent joint damage.

Theme 3: Reasons those changing poor nutrition habits

Eating well is one of the main processes to keep the human body healthy and resilient to different kinds of diseases (Hassani et al., 2017). For instance, different chronic health conditions can be prevented or can be controlled by reducing body weight. This can be achieved through effective nutritional practices. Through reducing the bodyweight a person can reduce his or her risk to heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, poor bone density and some types of cancers. Proceed foods are the main sources of high calories as compared to whole vegetables and fruits which leads to increased body weight which is the reason behind different types of diseases. Therefore, determining calorie requirements for a person’s body is essential to guide in dietary process.

Keeping the weight of the body under healthy range and according to the Body Mass Index, may help keeping blood pressure under control and cholesterol under target range. This may decrease the possibility of being affected by diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. Additionally, it may prevent or delay the complications of diabetes (Hemmingsen et al., 2017). It is essential for individuals for limiting the intake of sugar and salt in a balanced manner and to avoid fried foods in order to keep these complications under control.

A study conducted by Frayn & Knäuper, (2018) confirms that there is a highly significant relationship between mood regulation and healthy eating. For instance, consuming food with high glycemic load increases the risk of developing symptoms of fatigue and depression. This might lead to affect the daily performance and may reduce the capacity of a person to cope with stress generated through daily life hassle. High glycemic load can be found in white breads, biscuits and cakes. Therefore, consuming whole fruit, vegetables and others can be effective to prevent incapacity to mood regulation and so on.

Strategies to behavior change

It has been found from the discussion that the nutritional habits are responsible for reducing or increasing risks of certain types of diseases. Therefore, intake of healthy food and maintaining timely food intake is essential for keeping the body healthy and working. Poor digestion is a cause due to which the food components are not absorbed effected within the body (Grundy et al., 2016). Therefore, it has been decided to consult a registered dietician or doctor that can decide upon healthy diet. It is essential not only to develop a diet chart or planning, a self planning is required for maintaining the dietary habits. Therefore, food consumption will be based on the time and type of food suggested by the doctor. Additionally, it is important to be engaged in physical activities which are also possible through gaining energy from healthy food consumption. Foods that are adequate for providing protein, fat and carbohydrate are required to be consumed for keeping the body active and working.

A balance can be kept between the numbers of servings from each of the food groups. It is required t follow the recommended number of servings from each of the groups of food daily (Amore, Buchthal & Banna, 2019). in order to achieve the same a schedule can be maintained for food consumption even in daily busy schedule. Self management and not consuming food in unhealthy and improper time management can be avoided to reduce the risk of imbalance in the diet.

A variety in each food group will also be maintained. For instance, it is required to track the daily consumption of different types of foods based on which the variety among the food components can be maintained such as eating different fruits from different groups of fruit can be effective. Moderation will also be maintained where consuming a little of every food will be maintained up to a certain level of consumption. As an athlete, a person may have special nutritional needs. For instance, unlike other people athletes need more carbohydrate such as grains, vegetables and fruits. Therefore, these will be included into the daily meals to adequately satisfy the need of the body. Carbohydrate will be consumed before and at the time of exercise as the body cannot store a large amount of carbohydrate (Apovian, 2016).

It is difficult to maintain a healthy dietary schedule for a student as there is a lot of responsibilities to work on. Therefore, a schedule containing all the daily tasks and guiding for healthy dietary habit is required to be maintained.

Conclusion on Emotional Eating and Weight in Adults

In conclusion, poor nutritional habits increases the chance of getting affected by different kinds of health hazards such as high blood pressure or hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and some types of cancers also. However, consuming healthy food is responsible for elevating and promoting mood regulation which is highly essential for dealing with daily life stress and hassle. Therefore, maintaining schedule and consulting with registered dietician may help in preventing the possibility to increase the risk of mentioned health condition.

Reference List for Emotional Eating and Weight in Adults

Amore, L., Buchthal, O. V., & Banna, J. C. (2019). Identifying perceived barriers and enablers of healthy eating in college students in Hawai’i: a qualitative study using focus groups. BMC nutrition5(1), 16.

Apovian, C. M. (2016). Obesity: definition, comorbidities, causes, and burden. Am J Manag Care22(7 Suppl), s176-85.

Benjamin, E. J., Muntner, P., Alonso, A., Bittencourt, M. S., Callaway, C. W., Carson, A. P., ... & Delling, F. N. (2019). Heart disease and stroke Statistics-2019 update a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation.

Frayn, M., & Knäuper, B. (2018). Emotional eating and weight in adults: a review. Current Psychology37(4), 924-933.

Grundy, M. M. L., Edwards, C. H., Mackie, A. R., Gidley, M. J., Butterworth, P. J., & Ellis, P. R. (2016). Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism. British Journal of Nutrition116(5), 816-833.

Hara, K., Tohara, H., Kobayashi, K., Yamaguchi, K., Yoshimi, K., Nakane, A., & Minakuchi, S. (2018). Age-related declines in the swallowing muscle strength of men and women aged 20–89 years: A cross-sectional study on tongue pressure and jaw-opening force in 980 subjects. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics78, 64-70.

Hassani, P., Izadi-Avanji, F. S., Rakhshan, M., & Majd, H. A. (2017). A phenomenological study on resilience of the elderly suffering from chronic disease: a qualitative study. Psychology research and behavior management10, 59.

Hemmingsen, B., Gimenez‐Perez, G., Mauricio, D., i Figuls, M. R., Metzendorf, M. I., & Richter, B. (2017). Diet, physical activity or both for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (12).

Sarpooshi, D. R., Taghipour, A., Mahdizadeh, M., & Peyman, N. (2020). Enablers of and Barriers to Effective Diabetes Self-Care in Iran: A Qualitative Study. Patient Related Outcome Measures11, 109.

Sogari, G., Velez-Argumedo, C., Gómez, M. I., & Mora, C. (2018). College students and eating habits: A study using an ecological model for healthy behavior. Nutrients10(12), 1823.

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