• Subject Name : Nursing

Urinary System

1. Describe the pathophysiology of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also called BPH. It is not cancerous but in this condition men prostate gland is enlarged. Benign prostatic hyperplasia is also named as benign prostatic hypertrophy or benign prostatic obstruction. The prostate undergo two main growth periods as a man getting old. In puberty time, when the prostate doubles in size the first benign prostatic hyperplasia occur and second phase of growth begins nearly age at 25 and progress slowly until the death. Benign prostatic hyperplasia mostly occurs in the second growth phase. The gland start pitches and presses against the urethra and the wall of bladder becomes thicker. And the bladder may weaken .So some urine leaves in the bladder because bladder lose the ability to empty completely. Many problems correlated with benign prostatic hyperplasia due to the bladder doesn’t empty completely some urine leaves in it and urinary retention and the urethra become narrowing.

The pathophysiology and development of BPH is complex. Some focuses points are following:

  • According to Mc Cance & Huether, 2014 the ratios and levels of the endocrine factors such as Androgen, Estrogens, Gonadotropin, Prolactin.
  • According to Mc Cance and Huether, 2014 the change in the balance of paracine growth stimulatory and growth inhibitory factors such as Insulin like growth factors (IGFs), Epidermal growth factors, Nerve growth factor, Fibroblast factor, IGF binding proteins, TGF- beta.

2. Describe 5 clinical manifestations of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH).

Clinical manifestation of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary regency
  • Nocturnal
  • Urinary Hesitancy
  • Incomplete emptying of the Bladder
  • Urinary frequency : The bladder may weaken so urine flow out nine or more times in a day.
  • Urinary regency : The walls of bladder becomes thicker so man unable to delay urination.
  • Nocturnal: Maximum urination during periods of sleep.
  • Urinary Hesitancy: In this man unable to maintain urine flow.
  • Incomplete emptying of the Bladder: Bladder wall becomes weaken so bladder unable to empty completely some urine leaves in it.

3. Emilio has made the decision to have a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). What is this procedure?

Emilio decide to have a transurethral resection of the prostate. TURP is a surgery which is used to treatment the urinary problems due to by an enlarged prostate. In this surgery the instrument is used called a resectoscope. Through the tip of the penis and into the tube which carries urine from the bladder, this instrument is used. The extra prostate tissue which block the urine flow trim away by this instrument. TURP is the option for those who have medium urinary problems and not treated by medication.

4. Is benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) considered a normal process that occurs with ageing? Why/Why not?

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is the common problem in aged man. BPH doesn’t cause of cancer. But sometimes symptoms get worse. BPH developed because of changing level in sex hormones. Above the age 60 maximum man will have some signs of BPH. BPH has two type of symptoms that is early symptoms and late symptoms. Sometimes bladder stones or bladder infection also responsible for the BPH and this stage the late symptoms of BPH. The change in the lifestyle can help to control the benign prostate hyperplasia.

References for  Emilio Case Study

Lee E, British Journal of Urology. 1997

Guthrie RM, Siegel RL. Clinical Therapeutics. 1999

Bandolier. Long-term BPH treatment.20040

Milani S, Djavan B. 2005

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