• Subject Name : Psychology

Harmful Health Behaviour – Smoking

Introduction to Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity Reduction on Smoking Abstinence

Smoking is not a new word for users around the globe. It is a tremendous risk to public health, but still, users continue to do smoking. As per the 2020 smoking-related records from the World Health Organization, more than 8 million humans pass away annually from smoking, and this figure is expected to grow to around 9 million death each year (WHO, 2020). As per the National Cancer Institute, chewing tobacco is linked to bad health behavior of smoking (NIH, 2011). It leads to affect the health of individuals such as the emergence of infections, like different types of cancer, cardiovascular, and breathing infections. From an observational medicinal viewpoint, one transdiagnostic threat for an individual due to smoking is anxiety sensitivity (AS) (Zvolensky et al. 2018). Anxiety renders a comparatively stable individual variation aspect that drives individuals to acquire anxiety / severe depression complications by modulating bad mood states (Zinbarg et al. 1997). Smoking also affects the community like, when pregnant females and toddlers are exposed to indirect cigarette smoke (Glantz & Bareham, 2018). It results in negative consequences such as preterm delivery, unexpected toddler mortality disorder, and asthma.

In this regard, the essay focuses on the concept of the harmful behavior along with its impact on an individual’s health, and strategies that will assist with a positive lifestyle change. To address the objective of the essay, the essay has covered the effect of smoking on harmful behavior on human’s life, the aspects that can increase the smoking behavior, the hurdles to changing the smoking habits, the reason to change such behavior, and strategies that will assist with a positive lifestyle along with resolving such behavior. Thus, the thesis statement can be stated as, “Whether smoking proves beneficial for people’s health.”


Many people understand it is not advantageous to health, but the smokers keep on smoking (Levinson et al., 2007). Patterson et al. (2004) explored that some health implications are also known to university students. However, there are variations concerning presumed susceptibility to smoking-related diseases. As per the health belief framework, inherent susceptibility is the viewpoint of an individual about his or her possibilities of obtaining a behavior specific severe health issue (Rosenstock, 1974). Those individuals who do not feel to be prone to the disease are more likely to progress with such behavior. Regular college student smokers accepted that due to their smoking styles, they are more sensitive to adverse health consequences, but evidence seems to represent that such awareness does not impact smoking behavior once the behavior has been conducted (Ganley & Rosario, 2013). Moreover, numerous research papers have discovered that nondaily community college smokers, like social smokers and deniers, understate their smoking-related health potential consequences (Berg et al., 2009; Song et al., 2011; Thompson et al., 2007). One significant reason such smokers believe less prone to negative health consequences is due to their limited smoking rates (Debevec & Diamond, 2012). However, one analysis revealed that other forms of smokers think that these nondaily people who smoke are at high risk of compromising their health even with low smoking behaviors (Seigers & Terry, 2011).

There are significant observations drawn regarding the chronic diseases triggered by smoking. Tobacco smoke includes more than 7,000 toxins. Breathing tobacco smoke uncovers the smoker to certain multiple toxic substances that incorporate the various constituents of tobacco and pyrolysis ingredients. Access to such a complex organic combination is triggering a rapid physiological negative impact on the individual's health. The physiological mechanisms underlying cigarettes addictive behavior are identified at the individual level, and the rising incidence of physical and mental disorder discovered in such peoples. Smoking tobacco tends to cause chronic illnesses that happen at later adults, such as lung cancer, as well as short-term adverse health consequences, that have an effect on the most important organ systems (as shown by figure 1). Nicotine addiction is another immediate negative impact of smoking on an individual's health (Glantz & Bareham, 2018).

Although smoking is regarded as behavior motivated by individual preference, community characteristics such as family, unemployment, index of malnutrition, and usability to toxic conditions affect smoking rates (Chuang et al., 2005). Passive smoking is a threat to non-smoking communities, triggering approximately 46,000 deaths from heart attacks and 3,400 deaths from lung cancer in the United States each year. The impacts of smoking on the community entail doubling the number of risks of cardiovascular, respiratory, and oral infections.

Peer pressure is frequently thought to enhance smoking behavior among teenagers. Some research has suggested that smokers, particularly those who frequently smoke and/or are nicotine-dependent, think that smoking improves mental state, the potential to deal with the level of anxiety, and helps in sociocultural development (Pokhrel & Herzog, 2015). Such measures may boost smoking behavior.

There are several barriers to modifying smoking behavior. A primary priority for continuing to smoke is to eliminate the hateful emotion regulation generated by nicotine withdrawal. Individuals start feeling depressed and irritable when the nicotine level in the body collapses with cigarettes (Piper, 2015). Throughout the day, such emotions appear frequently and are comforted by obtaining a further cigarette. Attitudinal/social scenarios are associated with smoking, such as watching TV with friends, controlling the automobile, and meeting new people (Gucht et al., 2010). Promoting a brand's reputation, panic from failure, communicative pressure, and looking modern in front of people also presents the barriers to correct the negative behavior. Also, studies have been conducted on the aspects that can influence an individual in changing their smoking habit. The threshold of nicotine addiction is the most famous factor for successful quit attempts (Kardia et al., 2003). Motivation is often perceived as the primary reason for quitting (Costello et al., 2012).

Moreover, several techniques will help with a beneficial transition in lifestyle by resolving the addictive behavior. Higher economic charges must apply to retailers who offer smoking product to adolescents who are underage of 18years. The smoking packets in the stores must be kept hidden so that it may decrease the interest of smokers. Lowering the smoking products outlets can significantly lessen the consumption of tobacco (Georgiadou et al., 2015). For adolescent smokers, it is very vital to take action as they will become parents who will smoke and repeat the sequence of smoking-related implications and early deaths. Every nation must obey the smoke-free laws of the FCTC to encourage control of the smoking prevalence. School-based activities involving both specialized training and peer-led social influence have been identified to lessen smoking consumption (Georgie et al., 2016).

The most priority should be given to youths and expectant mothers in preparing strategies against smoking. Smoking product rates must be raised higher to limit the frequency of smoking. Females who kick the habit within the first 3-4 months of infertility lessen their chances of having an infant with low birth weight to the very same degree of risk as females who never did smoke (Pirie et al., 2013).

People who quit smoking present higher rates of pleasure and enjoyment with their lifestyles than others who keep on (Jha & Peto, 2014). Thus, behavioral guidance (motivation, suggestions, and conversation) from a highly experienced prevent-smoking professional increase the probability of a quit attempt's long-term success by about 3–7 percent, whether provided by handset or face-to-face (Lancaster & Stead, 2005). Marketing strategies (television commercials) can avoid smoking initiation, boost the frequency at which smokers choose to quit, and enhance the probability of success. It can contribute to lowering smoking rates. The application of full smoking bans in enclosed public places can also be regarded as a risk reduction metric. A multi-session telephone guidance strategy can strengthen survival rates by quitting smoking (Stead et al., 2013). Such strategies can address and resolve the smoking habits.

The probability of sustainable transition comes through creating awareness and providing confidence (Ganley & Rosario, 2013). A reinforced execution of the WHO on Tobacco Control, which is the very first worldwide public health treaty, reflects the evidence-based feedback to the global threat of smoking. Regularly smoking in Australia has dropped by 0.6 percentage points per year over a while (from 22.4% of grown-ups aged 18 + years in 2001 to 14.5% in 2015).

Conclusion on Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity Reduction on Smoking Abstinence

Various health issues like cancers, lung disease, and heart attacks have been observed as the primary health issues caused due to smoking. It has been concluded that governments should reduce the incidence of smoking by using various strategies like inflating the price of smoking by taxation, by conducting continuous social media programs, by guaranteeing that health practitioners consistently recommend smokers to avoid, by providing cessation assistance, and by allowing pharmacological and therapeutic treatment available to stop them. Such strategies will result in a positive lifestyle change. It has also been concluded that all users should minimize smoking for the betterment of themselves and the individuals surrounding them. Lastly, the essential guidance would be that each person must try not to smoke and encourage others to withdraw the smoking habit. Thus, the thesis statement can be restated as “that smoking is very dangerous to humans and has converted into an essential concern to public health.”

References for Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity Reduction on Smoking Abstinence

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Zvolensky, M. J., Garey, L., Allan, N. P., Farris, S. G., Raines, A. M., Smits, J., Kauffman, B. Y., Manning, K., & Schmidt, N. B. (2018). Effects of anxiety sensitivity reduction on smoking abstinence: An analysis from a panic prevention program. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology86(5), 474–485. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000288

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