• Subject Name : cross cultural management


Executive Summary

This report is a critical evaluation of the concepts of culture and approaches relevant to the management of the organization. The study throws light on the management of Dominos which is one of the most popular fast-food chains across the globe. It is widely known for baking and delivery of pizzas. Apart from this, the study also highlights the Implications of cultural differences and language differences in business communications. The study also showed the impact of cross-cultural on the two organizations that are merged recently. Different models and theories such as Kluckhohn theory, Hofstede theory, Trompennars 7D cultural dimension model are explained in the report. The study also highlights the neo-Boasian model which is based on the four pillars of anthropology model.

Table of Contents


Company Overview 

Core Values 

Core Values of Dominos 

Walmart and Flipkart two merging companies 

Cross-culture theories 

Types of cultural difference in organization 

Cultural dilemmas in business 

Personal space expectations 

High and low context 

Language issue 

Working culture 

The neo-Boasian model 





Strong core values are expected from any organization whether it is small scale, medium scale or large scale.  This report will reflect the concept of culture and approaches relevant to the management of the organization.  Also, the study will critically evaluate the theoretical approaches to cross-cultural management in context of organization.  Implications in cultural differences and language differences in business communications will also be discussed in the study. This report is fragmented into six sections and each section demonstrates the specific concept.  The upcoming sections of the report are going to focus on the core values of Dominos which is a globally-known and accepted brand (Fang and Zhang 2019). Various topics such as how should an organization develop its core value, which of them are appropriate; which are necessary, are there any need to change or amend any values will be covered in the report. Articles from peer-reviewed journals are studied to select the model which is further used for finding possible dilemmas of business in question.  The study will also discuss the potential issue faced by organizations such as different cultures working together and alteration in decision-making processes. These issues will be addressed and resolved by using the cross-culture management theory and its application in the organization.  The entire focus of the study will be on a particular organization that is Domino’s as it is one of the most trusted and recognized organizations in the food industry and it is founded in the year 1960.  In the year 2018, the organization has become the largest pizza seller all over the world in terms of sales.  The headquarters of Dominos is located at Ann Arbor, Michigan, the U.S. Apart from this, the organization is well known for the quality and quantity of food delivered by the organization.  Recommendations and conclusion are also provided at the end of the report.

Company Overview

Dominos is one of the most popular fast-food chains across the globe. It is widely known for baking and delivery of pizzas. The company was started in the mid-1960s by Tom Monaghan and his brother James. Its first international branch was opened in Canada on 13th May 1983. Currently, Dominos consists of 9000 branches and stores across the world. It was founded in the Michigan State of the US. The organization is currently employing 145,000 employees across the world. The company was selected due to its strong presence in the global market (Keller et al. 2017). The company is also employing thousands of employees across the world. Many employees belong to different cultures and regions of the world still they can maintain same taste and quality of product throughout every continent and country.  Dominos is known across the world for its quality service and product. 

Core Values

Core Values of Dominos

Dominos continuously keeps putting up diligent effort to maintain its core values. The motivation and reason for doing this is to gain complete customer satisfaction and create an image of a premium restaurant chain cross the world (Fang and Zhang 2019). Some of the major core values of dominos are as follows: 

Value customers: The company ensures it by providing high-quality food prepared from high-quality raw material, developing a welcoming environment, superior services. 

Ethical Business: Dominos is committed to following business ethics as mentioned by each continent or region. The organization has created its image as a reliable company.

Social Responsibility:  Dominos believes that its their responsibility to help in development of a better society. To ensure this dominos regularly keeps donating to make the world a better place. 

Strive continually to improve

In Domino’s they need continuous improvement, high research and development because of changing customer’s need, satisfaction level and high competition.

Business profitability

Domino's is a public limited company. Their aim is to continue growth, increase in revenue and shareholders income. For that they require high level of customer's satisfaction.

Domino’s System

Domino’s business model described by “three-legged stool” Proprietor/worker, Provider, and company’s member of staff

Committed to their People

They provide opportunity, care for talent, give rewards for achievements, and build up Leaders. They believe that well trained employees with different backgrounds share their experiences and deliver high level of quality works as well as aids organization to accomplish all the predefined goals of the organization (Raspa 2017). The organization is located in different parts of the world with diverse culture and eating habits. Dominos implement strategies that can help the organization to relate the culture and the choices of the customers as per the culture followed by countries. 

The core values that every organization should have are integrity and ethics, respect, innovation and drive. These are the most important core values that should adhere by the organization in the world (Teoh 2019). Every organization has different kind of work and has different visions. This will ultimately lead to have different core values to accomplish the predefined goals of the organization.  It is noted that with the increasing number of foreign enterprises it is very cardinal for the organizations to maintain cross culture management in order to fulfill the needs and requirement of the customers belong to diverse culture. 

Walmart and Flipkart two merging companies 

These two companies are the retail corporation and in the year this companies merge together and deliver best services to the customers worldwide.  Both organization belongs to different zones and face various potential issues such as diverse culture of both organization, working culture and many more (Bhaskaran and Bandookwala 2019). The cross culture difference of the organization was solved by the cross culture management theory which aims to aids organization to manage the cross culture difference and adopt inclusive methods so that all these barriers are eradicate which arises in between the accomplishment of organization goals. Cultural difference always impact the performance of the organization and this is seen in all organization of the world. Filpkart and Walmart applied this theory and help the managers to eradicate cross culture conflict among the members of the organization ( Saraswathy 2019). Dominos also applied this theory in order to manage the cultural difference in the organization. Managers of the organization play an important part in successful implementation of this theory.

Cross culture theories 

Culture is the configuration of the learned behaviour and results of behaviour whose component behaviors are exchange and shared among the particular associations. Culture is a phenomena which is varied from place and place and also pass on from generation to generations. The elements of culture are comprises of language, cast, sex, education, family, moral, values, attitudes etc. There are immense characteristics of culture as culture is dynamic, relative, universal, integrated, symbolic etc ( Saraswathy 2019). There are basically four levels of culture and this are comprise of dominant, sub, organizational and occupational. In present competitive situation it is very important for the organizations to know the cross culture and difference in order to make successful decision making approaches (Wei 2018). There are different cross culture theories and the study will focus on organizational culture and its impact on organization performance. An organization culture varies on the basis of four factors that are organizational objective and vision, competitive challenges, national variable and socio cultural variables. Hofstede provides a framework that aids to understand and simplify the cross culture in the workplace (Carolina 2019). According to him there are national and regional culture alliances that lead to affect the behaviour of the communities and organizations as this are very obstinate across time. Hofstede main findings depicts that in the organization the work linked values are not universal. In addition, local culture also impacted the performance of the organization and new rules and regulations are interpreted. Fundamental values are continues to drive when a multinational organization attempts to enforce the similar norms on its entire foreign interest. The dimension of his framework assess the culture high and low power distance, long term and short term orientation, uncertainty avoidances and so on. High and low power lead to less harmony and less corporation in the team work.

Kluckhohn theory is based on the distinct thinking, behavior and patterns of different culture in the organization. In the organization different kind of people works together in the accomplishment of predefined goals of the organization (Glover et al. 2017). Every individual have different thinking, nature, attitude which ultimately impact their way of working in the organization. Halls and Halls depicts that that there are cross culture is classified into two cultures that is high context culture and low context culture.  The members of high context culture are highly impacted by external environment while on the other hand the low context culture are not all impacted by the external environment. Trompennars 7D cultural dimension model depicts the seven cultural dimensions such as individualism and collectivism (Shynkaruk et al. 2018). Which certainly impact the performance of the organization performance in many ways.

Types of cultural difference in organization  

Due to globalization it is very easy for the organizations to expand their business from one country to another. All the organization belongs to different industries have established their business with an ace to perform better and accomplish new heights for the organization. Different strategies are adopted by the organization to attain smooth working in the different culture and diverse place. Dominos have also faced problem of cross culture difference at the time of expansion of business from one place to other (Xu and Zheng2017). This cross culture may include difference in culture, religion, language, food culture, working practices and so on. In some countries Saturdays and Sundays are official off and mostly all employees do not work on those days while on other hand country like India all organizations are not providing off on weekends. Apart from this food culture is always different of each country and Dominos always adhere this and make food that can match the food culture of that country. Different taste of pizzas is implemented by Dominos in order to fulfill the requirement of customer of specific locations. Not only Dominos, there are various organization which implement the strategies and working culture to fulfill the requirement of the customers that belongs to different culture and different domain (Christensen et al. 2020). Apart from this, language is the key culture difference faced by the organization and organization is working to eradicate this barrier and accomplish all new height and success for the organization growth and success. 

Cultural dilemmas in business 

There are various models of culture that have opened new possibilities to eradicate the cultural difference in the organization which highly affect the productivity of the organization. This models helps to deal with the present cultural delimass in the business. At present situation, organization face distinct cultural dilemmas (Gou 2018). This is one of the most common problems in the corporate world as different types of people work together to accomplish the predefined goals of the organization. It is also noted that diversity enriches the performance of the organization on large scale as diversity leads to generation of new ideas, thoughts, innovations in present models and plans for the betterment of the organization. cultural difference can lead to interfere in the productivity or can develop conflict among the employees. Stereotypes and unawareness about and culture and customs lead to affect the employees’ effectiveness and this also lead to impact the business dealings with the potential customers belong to different culture and traditions (Bouwer 2019). This is very important for the organization to acknowledge the importance of culture diversity for the betterment of the organization. Examples of cultural difference are 

Personal space expectations

In the corporate world there are different culture followed by the organizations which varied country to country. In South American and Europeans countries there is a different way to greed each other and on the other hand countries like India all people do Namaste to greed each other. There are different expectations of the customers in different country (Isaac et al. 2019). This is a difficulty for the employees who belongs to different culture and country and perform work with diverse people around it. Lots of adjustment needs to done in order to adjust in the new place with different people and culture.

High and low context

Different organization have different level of context as the low context organization always prefer to make decision on fact bases while on the other hand the other organization high context organization takes more time, explanation and order to make required changes in the organization.

Language issue

The main cultural difference is the language barriers which is the most difficult problem for the organization as well as for the employees working in the organization. Due to better job opportunity people go from one country to other for the better job opportunity. Sometimes best candidates are not selected due to language problem though they have good technical knowledge and understanding but language is always barrier for them. In organizations different types of people meet each other and work within a team in order to accomplish the desired goals in the organization(Fuentes and Rouse 2016). All members have to accept the culture difference and help each other in the accomplishment of goals for the organization. In addition it is also noted that, this cultural barrier will lead to create conflict between the members of the organization which ultimately impact the productivity of the organization. These conflicts are found by The neo-Boasian model which is an cultural model which is based on the four field model of anthropology. 

Working culture 

Working culture of organization are varied from country to country. Some country adopts the culture of 5 days working and some adopt the culture of 6 days working. When this type of organization merges together then it will be problem for the people working together (Darwent and O’Brien 2017). Working culture always impact the productivity of the employees and organizations always implant certain strategies to eradicate this issue and provide good cultural environment to the employees. At present human resource department of the organization is super active and delivers all the given resources to the employees as per the needs and requirements. 

The neo-Boasian model

This Model is based on the four pillars of anthropology model. This four pillars are the cultural, linguistic, physical and archeology. This all are based on the understanding of human culture and differences. The cultural ethical dilemmas in the business are found by this model in the report. According to this model the cultural similarities should be explained by parallel adaptations to the identical natural environments (Fuentes and Rouse 2016). Apart from this, all associations are not passed through identical phases of cultural development and it is the responsibility of the organization to analyze the changes implements the strategies according to it. 


Culture diversity is the cardinal for the betterment and the growth of the organization. It enable to develop the new ideas, approaches, techniques in order to set different goals and heights for the organization. If an organization is promoting a specific culture or regulation then it impacts the work of the employees who is handling it. The organization has to eradicate this core values as the employees are not able to exist in that environment (Lasierra et al. 2016). Apart from this, the human resource management of the organization needs to consider each and every problem faced by the member of employee related to the cultural issues. As every organization need to celebrate the cultural diversity in the organization and celebrate each culture to engage and interact employees for the betterment of the organization. Along with this, Language issue is the main issue and organization need to take some steps such as giving training or some extra time to the employee to learn the language which are required in the professional world.


It can be concluded from the study that cultural diversity has pros as well as cons in the organization.  The study has shown the concept of cultural and approaches relevance to the management of the organization. The study focuses on a particular organization that is Domino’s as this is one of the most reliable and recognized organization in food industry. Dominos continuously keeps putting up diligent effort to maintain its core values. The study also found that the cross culture difference is the rising problems in the organization which can be solved by cross cultural management theory. The study also showed the impact of cross cultural on the two organization that are merged together that are Walmart and Flipkart. Culture is the outline of the erudite behaviour and results of behaviour whose component behaviors are exchange and shared among the particular associations. The study have explained different theories that are Kluckhohn theory, Hofstede theory, Trompennars 7D cultural dimension model. The study also highlights the cultural dilemmas in businesses. The common problems in the corporate world are the dissimilar types of people work together to accomplish the predefined goals of the organization. The study also highlights the neo-Boasian model which is based on the four pillars of anthropology model. These four pillars are the cultural, linguistic, physical and archeology. Apart from this, the cultural deference’s can be eradicated by the organization by adopting the recommendations provided in the study.


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