Communication and Technology



Network Design and Addressing Scheme.



Introduction to Communication and Technology

An IP address is sometimes considered an Internet Protocol address. It is a numerical mark that assigns the IP for communication to a unit linked to a computer network. IP address serves as an ID for a single network computer. The IP address is also known as Internet address and IP number. The IP address defines the addressing and packet system's technical specification. Many networks use the combination of IP and TCP. It also enables a virtual link to be established between an aim and a source.

IPv4 addresses are 32-bit numbers usually seen in the decimal notation dotted with two primary parts: the prefix network and the host code. The following topics include IPv4 Classful addressing, IPv4 Decimal Notation, IPv4 Subnetting, IPv4 Vary-Long Subnet Masks, IPV6 IP version 6 comprehension and usage of address types in Junos OS RX Sequence Services Gateway, and inet6 IPv6 Protocol family configuration.

32-bit IPv4 adresses are usually seen in decimal notation dotted. The network prefix and house number are two principal parts of a 32-bit address. The same network address is familiar to all hosts of a single network. The host has an address which identifies it exclusively. The address is special either internationally or locally, depending on the extent of the network and the computer model. Devices available to users outside of the network (for instance, web servers) must have an IP address that is unique worldwide. Phones available only across the network have IP addresses that are geographically special. A central numbering body called the Internet Assigned Numbers Service (IANA) assigns IP addresses. IANA guarantees the addresses are universal uniqueness when appropriate and provides a wide room for devices that cannot be viewed on their own networks.

Wide shortage of IPv4 routable means that mobile and fixed broadband network providers have taken IPv6 substantially. In North America by the summer of 2015, complete depletion of IPv4 is expected. In the US, IPv6 traffic is 15%, with Cisco predicting that it will rise to 25% by 2015. Last year's global traffic volume for IPv6 has increased from 3% to 6% (and is projected to hit 50% by 2018). IPv6 has now been a part of The tactical preparation and rollout in several organizations, even with this large degree of acceptance. The creation of an IPv6 addressing strategy is one of the most critical initial tasks for any IPv6 business. Since the majority of IPv6 implementations are green, it provides particular challenges and advantages to build an IPv6 address plan.

Network Design and Addressing Scheme

The new framework for which few, if ever, organizational or technological knowledge will exist for most organisations is a key challenge. One difficulty is to consider how the latest complexity and likely enormous amounts of IPv6 addresses can be handled more efficiently. IPv4 is implemented in the current IPv4 distribution networks of most organisations of conjunction with IPv4. It is popular for new users to IPv6 so they can easily replicate their current IPv4 addressing method in IPv6 in some cases. Depending on the company, it may be helpful to build and handle IPv6 quickly.

However, the simplicity and reliability of operation and design provided by a proper IPv6 addressing strategy would inevitably outweigh any temporary benefit obtained by such a workaround. The major advantages of exceptionally broad distributions with IPv6 would be integrated in an appropriate management strategy. The almost infinite size of IPv6 address space makes for a proposal to resolve the lack of IPv4 addresses no longer limited. In order to economically align the size of the subnet to the host on a given network node, techniques like variable long subnet masking (VLSM) were previously required in IPv4.

In IPv6, the technology is not needed and is outdated. Or, a coherent and readable addressing scheme can be built. The extraordinary abundance of IPv6 permits the possibility of adding value to network and organizational topology classes of site subnetworks. The IPv6 Address Plan can be segmented and mapped in ACL entries to support security, QoS policy, and/or routing setup that supports a review. Together with the traditional IPv6 subnet, these approaches can increase operating efficiency and improve the potential scalability of the network.

It could be helpful to quickly analyze how IPv6 addresses are built before going into IPv6 planning details. Note that 128 bits have an IPv6 address. These bits establish a barrier between the host and the network number. In fact, the 64 bits of the address component of the network number are split into the global routing prefix and the subnet ID. The first three bits are set to 001 on a global routing address. The following 45 bits describe the global prefix for routing. The next 16 bits are the subnet code. For device ID the remaining 64 bits of the address are reserved. The agency which assigns the related portions of the global routing prefix is also listed below.

To qualify for the primary allocation, you must first decide the required size allocation. Single location company gets a /48 (or addresses of 1.2x1024). This would be necessary but, if in future the company did not intend to build pages. Most often, companies would have several sites and will be assigned greater depending on the total number of sites which need to be handled. Table 1 indicates the number of / 48 locations accepted for different allocation sizes by the number of bits in the global routing prefix.

Number of /48-sized Sites

Number of bits in the Global Routing Prefix











Owing to the physical and technical constraints of the network structure, large networks also need to be split into smaller sub-networks. Any cable or ring needs a network number and a subnet address within a network.

Three computers attached to one subnet and another attached to the second subnet are shown in Figure 1. The wider network contains six computers and two subnetworks. The network prefix is, a class C address, allocated to this case. The IP address for each system comes under the network prefix. In addition, the computers on each subnet share the third bit, in addition to having a network prefix (the first two octets). The third byte is the subnet. The same subnet address must be sent to all computers on the subnet. The IP address for the alpha subnet is, the beta subnet is In that case the alpha subnet.

Each subnet resulting from this primary site assignment should not be less than the normal IPv6 interface assignment of a /64 (i.e., more bits). There are two key features for the more granular subnet assignments that originate from the location allocated to 48. Second, it is usually larger than the normal /64-interface assignment and is suitable for specifying classes in these interface subnetworks. Secondly, such classes are allocated according to the network role or location for which they are supplied.

Subnet ID prefix length

Number of subnet groups per /48

Number of /64 subnets
















These values can direct the number of subnet groups needed for a given domain, as well as /64s per group. In general, less subnetworks are open to other positions or functions at this site, the greater the 64s for a specific feature or position within the system. Fortunately, more than 4,096/64 subnets are not expected to be used by a single site or position in several organisations (a cap only allowing by 15 additional 52 subnets, each of 4,096/64).

The Internet infrastructure group and network providers have been arguing in recent years about how big a subset is to be used for point-by - point connections. Initial IPv6 configurations were widely used for compatibility, but security problems arose which potentially threatened and problematic such configuration. As a consequence, both 126 and 127 have been suggested and used as alternatives. RFC 6164 recently proposed the use of 127s on dot-to-dot ties. Latest changes in the reliability of major providers of their router and switch code have minimized or removed all reliability hazards associated with a /64 on a point-to - point connection.

Conclusion on Communication and Technology

This report is based on the explorations and analysis about network designs, standards and rules we follow when setting up any addressing scheme. Many companies will find that their IPv6 strategy grows over time. The best practice outlined in this guide will undoubtedly be compatible with and will bring in improvements in the technological and business conditions of the organisation. Of note, for IPv4 addressing proposals, a related procedure is also carried out. But where a strategy for IP addressing is required IPv6 provides distinct advantages. These benefits are the ability of an ISP and RIR to quickly get a higher IPv6 allocation, support for the refresh of the protocol, and a huge amount of unused IPv6 addresses when a four-bit limit is set for the initial contract. The benefits are highly used by organisations that have implemented a stable IPv6-supported DHCP, DNS, and IP address management (DDI) system. DDI help you to adjust your addressing strategy in a cost-effective and convenient way and to build it safely.

Sources for Communication and Technology

Nikander, P., Gurtov, A., & Henderson, T. R. (2010). Host identity protocol (HIP): Connectivity, mobility, multi-homing, security, and privacy over IPv4 and IPv6 networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials12(2), 186-204.

Goncalves, M. (2002). IPv6 networks. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Blanchet, M. (2010). U.S. Patent No. 7,657,642. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Durdağı, E., & Buldu, A. (2010). IPV4/IPV6 security and threat comparisons. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences2(2), 5285-5291.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Computer Science Assignment Help

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