• Subject Name : Management

Resilience Evaluation of Water Supply Networks Against Seismic Hazards

Introduction to Christchurch Water Supply Operations

The Christchurch water supply set out several goals and objectives for the water supply. The water supply chain must be effective enough to provide high-quality drinking water. In addition, the water supply system in Christchurch city is unique. The current system is divided into a number of large supply zones which has multiple mum station Sourcing water from the five combined Aquifers. Safe and sustainable water supply and improved waterways include communities that are actively involved in programs that promote water conservation water quality and valuing our waterways. 

External Needs for Supply

The administration is temporarily treating water with chlorine. Furthermore, the provisional chlorination offer an additional level of fortification against waterborne illness. In addition, the water supply is made of different zones that operate independently. Also, continuous monitoring is required is to understand the risk of contamination. The public health officials also specified that it is necessary to chlorinate the water in order to provide an additional layer of protection (Balaei et al., 2019). However, it is necessary to understand that ineffective chlorine in water causes odor and taste issues.

The council maintains the public water supply infrastructure which includes 165 wells and numerous reservoirs. Furthermore, water is delivered by electrical pumps. The local government manages and approves all the policies and operations related to the water supply. At the local level, the zone committees were responsible for the implementation of specific water strategies and restrictions on the supply of some organizations and industries. In addition, the central government is responsible for overseeing the implementation of necessary acts that minimize the risks related to the water supply. The government develops certain guidelines for the government as well as the public in order to avoid any emergency (Balaei et al., 2018). Furthermore, guidelines developed by the local government also encourages people to use water-efficient devices.

Water Delivery System

The council proposes to allocate the water according to the value of the rates paid by the property owners. This also means that wealthy residents may get a higher allocation of water. In addition, the urban and rural water supply schemes were used to supply water to 160,000 people (Canterbury’s, 2020). Furthermore, the payment of the water supply must be done through a fixed pricing system. In addition, the fixed charges vary according to the household or consumer classes. The parameters for setting a fixed charge depend on income ability or greater ability to pay. According to the evidence, the fixed water charge will be effective enough to maintain the water supply as well as consumer demands.

Responsive Supply Chain

The breakdown is very common and water supply chains. Furthermore, the council can deal with the breakdown through preventive maintenance. Preventive maintenance is a regular and planned activity that takes place so that breakdowns are evaded. One of the examples of precautionary maintenance includes servicing equipment examining equipment for wear and tear and replacing it if necessary (Jetmarova, Sultanova & Savic, 2018). It also includes the cleaning and greasing of the moving part of the equipment and replacing items that have an inadequate duration. Furthermore preventive maintenance is imperative as it shows that the Asset fulfills its service life. It also helps to prevent crisis and costly repairs. It is necessary to understand that the utility is with a strong focus on precautionary preservation of assets can save time and cost and evade service disruption and augment the overall revenue. An effective maintenance plan will help to improve the overall functioning of the supply chain. During the time of breakdown, it is necessary to make key decisions related to replacing old or damaged equipment (Farahmandfar, Piratla & Andrus, 2017). The decision should be based on past experiences or opinions of individuals. The Christchurch Council can develop a maintenance plan in order to provide effective services to the people. Also, different water treatment and supply system failed due to lack of spare parts proactive approach is required to understand the breakdown in the initial stages. Also, the standardization of tools and parts benefit operations and preservation because the fewer type of each part needs to be stocked. 

Improvement Plan for Council

 The emergency response plan must be an imperative part of the water system. Water system security is a continuous plan that must include daily inspection of the facilities. An effective system must include the owner's operators to repair people and alternative water suppliers. The major goal of ERP is to include an action plan in order to avoid any emergencies (Farahmandfar, Piratla & Andrus, 2017). With the help of an effective emergency response plan, the Christchurch Council may assess the type and severity of the emergency. the emergency response plan is created to deal with different possible emergencies including contamination malfunctioning of the water treatment plan chlorinator failure pump failure power failure and many more. for example, if the emergency is related to contamination then the emergency response plan will focus on shutting down the pump and notifying the environmental health officer. In the case of contamination, the emergency response plan will make the necessary arrangement for an alternative water source for the users (Bross et al., 2019). The management of Christchurch can also use automated meter readings. Automatic meter readings will help to save much water as it helps to record the water usage over a set period. 

Conclusion on Christchurch Water Supply Operations

It has been concluded from the overall analysis that Christchurch's water supply is effective but some improvement options can enhance its overall capacity. The analysis specified that the emergency response plan can help to deal with the issues that affect the overall water supply operations. In addition, the council must focus on eliminating a temporary system to clean the water. It is highly essential to use a permanent water cleaning strategy to avoid any emergency. It has also been specified that the automated meters can also help to save water. The local government must try to motivate the citizens to save water by using water-efficient systems. Also, an effective maintenance strategy will be required to avoid any additional expenses or unnecessary costs. The overall analysis shows that an effective and efficient water supply system must focus on safe drinking water for the citizens.

Reference for Christchurch Water Supply Operations

Balaei, B., Wilkinson, S., Potangaroa, R., Adamson, C., & Alavi-Shoshtari, M. (2019). Social factors affecting water supply resilience to disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction37, 101187.

Balaei, B., Wilkinson, S., Potangaroa, R., Hassani, N., & Alavi-Shoshtari, M. (2018). Developing a framework for measuring water supply resilience. Natural Hazards Review19(4), 04018013.

Bross, L., Krause, S., Wannewitz, M., Stock, E., Sandholz, S., & Wienand, I. (2019). Insecure security: Emergency water supply and minimum standards in countries with a high supply reliability. Water11(4), 732.

Canterbury’s drinking water. (2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020, from https://ecan.govt.nz/your-region/your-environment/water/canterburys-water/drinking-water

Farahmandfar, Z., Piratla, K. R., & Andrus, R. D. (2017). Resilience evaluation of water supply networks against seismic hazards. Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice8(1), 04016014.

Mala-Jetmarova, H., Sultanova, N., & Savic, D. (2018). Lost in optimisation of water distribution systems? A literature review of system design. Water10(3), 307.

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