• Subject Name : Human Rights

Global Governance and International

Table of Contents



Problem statement

Literature review..




Reference list

Introduction to Challenges of Decolonization

People, across the globe have in them ingrained the feeling of nationalism and nation building. Nationalism is the binding force that brings people of a nation together. Nationalism is an ideology; it is an emotion that leads people to think of ways for the betterment of the nation and execute rules and policies which will be of national interest. Now, talking of Nation and Nationalism would be incomplete if we do not bring to our discussion the role of the natives. The natives of a Nation, also known as the Aboriginals or the Indigenous people are the people who have been in that land since the beginning of time; they have been there for generations. They are supposedly the owners of the nation and the torch –bearers of human habitation in that particular land. Their stories of struggle and valor constitute a greater part of research on the life of early man and beginning of human civilization.

Background of Challenges of Decolonization

The Natives of the nation are the people who have inhibited the land as settlers and have stayed there for years thereafter (Ng-Hublin et al., 2017). They have formed a deep emotional and sentimental connection with the land and safeguarding its honour is their ultimate aim. These people mostly resided in Asia, Africa and Australia and became the early habitants of the place. They often travelled miles after miles in search of food and shelter for they did not know any specific means of livelihood back then. The natives were living a happy and carefree life, hunting and gathering their way through life until the European settlers decided to colonise what was until now the land of the natives. Soon enough, the Aboriginals were ‘othered’ in their own land and the ownership passed on to the hands of Europeans (Ng-Hublin et al., 2017). The colonizers soon made exclusionary policies to keep away the natives from claiming their lands and snatched the right to land from these people who for years through their dedication made the land habitable. They were reduced to mere slaves who would now be working under a European lord. From being masters of their own fate and life now they would be working as slaves and had no means to protest against it. The Europeans were powerful people both economically and socially powerful, they had policies that compelled the natives to adhere by it (Dawson, 2019). The natives could have left the land and settled elsewhere but their strong feeling of nationalism restricted them from moving away and they accepted the fate that had befallen them. 

Problem Statement 

To study about the background of indigenous people and global governance. The study will discuss the human rights and discriminations faced by the aboriginal people around the world. From this study it has to create awareness about those people and show the pictures of their lifestyle and issues faced by them from various sources (Bigenho & Stobart, 2016). It aims to find the function of global governance according to the international aspects and to do the research about the security principles of global governance and maintain those principles in the case of indigenous people. To study about the socio economic threats indigenous people have faced over the years.

Literature Review of Challenges of Decolonization

The term global governance is about the administration across the globe. Human rights are one of the key components of global governance. Human rights and global government both are interrelated with each other (Stürner & Bendel, 2019). Human rights show the path to the government to operate the whole system and execute in a way by which not a single person will affect by government law and order. Every person’s basic needs and rights are get secured by human rights. United Nations works with various human rights organizations are building a bridge of communication among them. Human rights works in various sectors like health, education, security, nationality etc. In this world there are numerous countries and different political, social, economic conditions that exist among them (Stürner & Bendel, 2019). Global governance always helps the countries to maintain cordial relationships among them and take steps against any human rights violation. Without the help of global governance it is not possible to maintain human rights around the world. All the instructions of protecting human rights are developed by the United Nations and it spreads all the agencies’ work in this field. Global governance also ensures that all the principles regarding human rights violations should be followed by the government of a particular country (Pedersen, 2017). 

Social and economic world both are related to each other. Economic development enhances the life of humans. Automatically social structure changes and status of humans in the society also change. Social inequalities create an impact on the economic area of indigenous people. New economic and political policies threaten the social life and economy of indigenous people. In recent days, the economic policies are supporting privatizations, labor market flexibilities, and liberalization trade policies. These affect the lifestyle of indigenous people and they face problems in their life (Pedersen, 2017). Due to the huge racism faced by indigenous people they are unable to get proper remuneration of any work and they faced discrimination in the workplace also. Current economic policies and social policies are intended to urbanization projects which are hampering the environmental policies as well as the social policies of indigenous people. Australian legislative assembly tries to negotiate with the mining companies to create employment for those people and taking social responsibilities of them (Gellers, 2016).

Small scale productions are the part of indigenous economy. But it is affecting by the current agricultural policies and food security, property rights are hampering the social life of those people. Their ethnicity is continuously threatening by the citizens of the country. A large dam is the symbol of modernization in the twenty-first century. It creates economic and social impacts on the indigenous people of any particular place (Gellers, 2016). The lands of indigenous people are captured due to those constructions and in the future it will also affect their lifestyle. Governments and various organizations do not compensate them in a proper way. In the world, there are lots of development projects that failed to secure the human rights of the indigenous people. In the world population 5% of that is the indigenous people and half of them are living an underprivileged lifestyle. Discriminations are happened due to the social structure and those people are continuously threatened by the system of society (Stengel & Baumann, 2017).

The Meaning of non-state actors is the individuals and organizations which have political policies but don’t have any alliance with any county. In the present day, the importance of non-actors is growing and they have an impact on political, economic, social, and security development. The roles of various social movements started by the non-actors are creating an impact in the social life around the world (Nasiritousi, Hjerpe & Linnér, 2016). The increasing number of non-actors has accelerated the development agendas of global governance. Due to the modernization of technology they can reach to the remote areas to help the people suffering from various reasons. 

Various non-government organizations are increasing in number and trying to help those indigenous people with their human rights and discrimination issues. Many companies around the world now believe in the sustainable development goals which lead to development in those areas. Indigenous people are now getting some help from these organizations and they can fight for their rights also (Stengel & Baumann, 2017). There are generally three types of non-actors categorized by United Nations. First of them is Non-Governmental Organizations or NGO’s, second is standard setting agencies and third is the credit risk rating agencies. NGO’s works in various fields which are human rights, external debt, environment, trade and labor issues etc. NGO’s depends on various funds from global bank and other sources but they play a constructive role in theses developmental work. NGO’s around the world work in numerous projects organized by World Bank. Standard setting bodies work differently than the NGO’s. The bodies ensure the standard and maintain the relationships with global governance in a proper manner (Kacowicz, 2018). They collaborate with other organizations and maintain the quality of work. The third type which is private credit rating organizations are gaining popularity in recent years and they try to borrow the international bonds from the open markets and fin investors from different organizations.

In current years, protection of regionalism is increasing and this is affecting the political, social and economic structure of global governance. In a simple word regionalism means a formation of some association among the people on the basis of religion. The rapid rate of increasing regionalism is creating an international debate among the scholars and academicians (Kacowicz, 2018). Lots of issues fall under regionalism which are trade issues, environmental issues, cross border issues, security issues etc. It is important to have geographical constraints to elaborate any region and their characteristics. Locating the region helps to gain knowledge about the political, economic and social structure of that particular geographical region. In the world various regions are present and it is hard to classify those regions and form a relationship among them. The characteristics are different from each other and constant comparisons are happening among them. Presently, many countries are trying to form a regional integration among the regions present in that particular country (Kahler, 2017). Regional organizations classify the regions among various small sectors which are:-

  1. Micro- regions: - It is smaller than the state and considered as territorial units.
  2. Cross- Border regions: - Cross border region is constructed with several micro regions into one cross border state region. This place has an economic importance in a state.
  3. Sub- Regions: - It consisted of several small states and formed a sub region. Those states have similar culture and historical origins (Kahler, 2017).
  4. Macro- region: - It is formed by combining different states and they have political, socio- cultural and economic importance on a larger scale.

These regions are interlinked with each other in various aspects and share strong connections among them. There are five types of regions classified by experts. Regional space is a small area and it has less physical barriers. Regional complex is consistent with various regional space and isolated groups. Regional complex comprises numerous parts of the state like markets, companies and society (Kahler, 2017). Regional community has a distinctive identity. Regional states originated from a sovereign political entity.

The United Nations has its own United Nation system within it. The system comprises six different organizations which are the General assembly, Security Council, Economic and social council, and trusteeship council, international court of justice and UN secretariat. General assembly is organized with all the united nation members (Brown, Clark & Buono, 2018). The main objectives of this system is to create the budget of one financial year, resolve issues of noncompulsory recommendations in a state, give advice to the security council. They also take decisions about admission of a new member in the United Nations. It also elects the non-permanent members and gives approval to them (Brown, Clark & Buono, 2018).

The UN secretariat helps the General assembly to create a budget and give opinion about the international issues. The main objective of this part is to do a survey and write the reports about that. It organizes international conferences and helps in the preparation of a study. It elects the Union Secretary General for a period of five years (Brown, Clark & Buono, 2018). The International court of Justice resolves the disputes between different states and countries. It also gives suggestions about any legal issues and tries to solve those in a proper supervision. The United Nations General Assembly selects fifteen judges to make those decisions and create judgments regarding the cases. The United Nation Security Council maintains peace and harmony among the countries around the world. It has to take some strong steps to resolve those problems keeping a peaceful environment (Lavenex, 2019). It has fifteen members among them five are permanent and rest of the ten members are chosen in the election.

The United Nations Economic and Social Council looks after the economic and social affairs around the world. It builds cooperation among the countries in economic and social areas. It also cooperates with various other agencies which are working in this field and try to maintain the network between them. It has fifty four members elected by the General assembly for a time period of three years (Lavenex, 2019). United Nation Trusteeship Council which is currently inactive since 1994 after the independence of Palau was the last trust territory.

To maintain the peace and security among the countries and state is a primary concern of global governance. Over the years, due to terrorism threats and regional conflict issues are giving challenges to the global organization to maintain the harmony around the world. Many non-state actors are working in this area and try to maintain balance in those conflicts (Jang, McSparren & Rashchupkina, 2016). It is hard to maintain a cooperation of the security priorities and principles in the northern and southern hemisphere. A single principle cannot resolve the world security problem in one step. The United Nations are trying to solve those problems around them and enhance the role and advantages. The UN sets some norms and rules which have to follow the countries around the world and try to maintain communal harmony among them. Non-state actors are helping the United Nations to resolve this matter and try to look after the post matter situation and give a report to the United Nations (Nasiritousi, Hjerpe & Linnér, 2016).

Methodology of Challenges of Decolonization

In all research study, there is a particular methodology to carry the research in a proper manner. The methodology of this study is to work in the areas of aboriginal or indigenous people and global governance (Stengel & Baumann, 2017). This research will talk about the human rights, non-actors and the United Nations functions towards the indigenous people around the world. This research will also study in the areas of regionalism and issues of this. The study will do research on the conditions of indigenous people, their problems, their lifestyle and exploitation of human rights. The facilities provided to them are very poor and their value is continuously decreasing in international markets. Due to globalization and `urbanization they are continuously facing various problems to retain their ethnicity. The culture and traditions are facing threats because of various modern organizations. The indigenous people of various countries are facing discriminations in the administrative areas also. Due to those unavoidable issues their existence is facing extinction and the government also fails to secure their basic human rights and communicate with them (Jang, McSparren & Rashchupkina, 2016). Over the years, the government neglects their problems. Their economy is also threatened due to environmental exploitations. The main purpose of this study is to spread awareness among the individuals regarding the indigenous people around the world.

Limitations of Challenges of Decolonization

Like every other research, this research on Aboriginal Nationalism also had certain limitation to it. To start with it reflects on the ongoing colonization and being continuously deprived of their basic rights irrespective of trying to voice their oppression from time and how they were denied the basic rights. They were denied the right to food, shelter and even human rights by their European lords (Pedersen, 2017). As a result of continuous oppression that these people were subjected too, they had become numb and hardly wished to voice their anguish. In due course of time they lost their native identity as well, the one they held so dearly. Many researchers across the world travelled to these places found that the place which once used to be native land is now a White town. These researchers extensively interviewed some of the native people and seeing someone outside the white community, they finally thought their voices would be heard, but even this time it was not heard (Ng-Hublin et al., 2017). Even though the researchers had a talk with the federal government to include rights in favour of these people but the government itself is monopolized by the whites, hence the native saw no change. Therefore they do not come out in front of interviewers anymore.

Secondly, residing in such close proximity with the natives, many European men were attracted to the native women, who possessed beautiful facial attributes. As a result a lot of women were married to these European men, some out of love and some forcefully. Post marriage many of these women post their native identity and this in a way narrowed the scope of expansion of the native indemnity (Dawson, 2019). So now if we look into the native population across the globe they form a very insignificant part of the world population.

Thirdly, since the aboriginals were denied formal education, that is they were denied admission into schools and colleges. All they received was bible lessons so that they could be converted into Catholics. Therefore, another limitation that was faced was the inadequacy to find first- hand narratives of their lived experiences of struggle. With the generations of natives denied the right to education and to learn the English language it is really difficult to know their part of the story to form an alternate version of history (Bigenho & Stobart, 2016). However, very recently, some of the natives have agreed to give an interview in the form of a conversation and share stories not only of oppression but also of their native clan, their life and culture.

Conclusion on Challenges of Decolonization

With the Europeans invading the native lands, a new version of history was created. The Europeans tried to project for a long time that these native people got a direction in life because of the colonies of the Europeans, that the natives were the white mans’ burden. For years the Europeans kept projecting that the natives were nothing more than hunters and gatherers and how the Europeans had civilised them. This was taken as the truth across time until some researchers wanted to learn about the alternate version of history. With the lived experiences of struggle, oppression and a life of slavery the natives brought to light the dark side of history. 

Reference List for Challenges of Decolonization

Bigenho, M., & Stobart, H. (2016). The devil in nationalism: indigenous heritage and the challenges of decolonization. International Journal of Cultural Property23(2), 141-166.

Brown, J. A., Clark, C., & Buono, A. F. (2018). The United Nations global compact: Engaging implicit and explicit CSR for global governance. Journal of Business Ethics147(4), 721-734.

Dawson, A. (2019). Are We Not Foreigners Here? Indigenous Nationalism in the US-Mexican Borderlands by Jeffrey M. Schulze. The Americas76(1), 192-193.

Gellers, J. C. (2016). Crowdsourcing global governance: sustainable development goals, civil society, and the pursuit of democratic legitimacy. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics16(3), 415-432.

Jang, J., McSparren, J., & Rashchupkina, Y. (2016). Global governance: present and future. Palgrave Communications2(1), 1-5.

Kacowicz, A. (2018). Regional governance and global governance: Links and explanations. Global Governance24(1), 61-79.

Kahler, M. (2017). Regional challenges to global governance. Global Policy8(1), 97-100.

Lavenex, S. (2019). Regional migration governance–building block of global initiatives?. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies45(8), 1275-1293..

Nasiritousi, N., Hjerpe, M., & Linnér, B. O. (2016). The roles of non-state actors in climate change governance: understanding agency through governance profiles. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics16(1), 109-126.

Ng-Hublin, J. S., Combs, B., Reid, S., & Ryan, U. (2017). Differences in the occurrence and epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Western Australia (2002− 2012). Infection, Genetics and Evolution53, 100-106.

Pedersen, M. B. (2017). Three Generations of International Human Rights Governance. In Global Insecurity (pp. 293-310). Palgrave Macmillan, London

Stengel, F. A., & Baumann, R. (2017). Non-state actors and foreign policy. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Stürner, J., & Bendel, P. (2019). The Two-Way ‘Glocalisation’of Human Rights or: How Cities Become International Agents in Migration Governance. Peace Human Rights Governance3(2).

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Human Rights Assignment Help

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