People and Organisations



Job rotation.

Job enlargement.

Job enrichment.

Personal power within the workplace.

Challenges Faced by The Presence of Stakeholders Within a Project.

Executive Summary of Project Governance and Stakeholders

A workplace is a place wherein you need to be focussed and serious about every task you receive and every challenge you face. In this report, I have tried to deliver all the challenges an employee face during job restructuring whether it is job rotation, job enlargement, or job enrichment. This report will also cover the employee’s perspective for these three changes occurred within the workplace. As the leader holds the most integral and critical position and has their dedicated power. This report has mentioned the difference between personal and professional power along with the difference between formal and informal leader. It has also mentioned how stakeholders are important within an organization and have discussed the facts responsible for the failure or success of any project where there are stakeholders involved.

Introduction to Project Governance and Stakeholders

Restructuring of the task and duties within the organization brings positive changes for the management as well as for the employees. It is implemented to encourage the employees towards the job. These changes include analysing, reforming, and restructuring the job responsibilities to increase the job performance and the profits within the organization (Kosek and Lautsch 2018).

Job Rotation

Job rotation is a method through which the work is managed in different shifts or in different allocations which allows the customers to have proper support in odd timings as well (Hochdorffer 2018). Employees are shifted from one shift to another in regular intervals which allows the company and the management to observe if the employee is doing better in other allocation. Job rotation helps the employees to gain maximum experience present in different allocations. Job rotation keeps the employees encouraged in work as they do not get bored because of the different work allocated to them as change is very necessary for every individual. Job rotation helps both management and the employees and to discover the hidden talent within the employee. The main objective of job rotation is to reduce the boredom and repeat tasks within the workplace to keep it challenging and exciting. This motivates the employee to stick with one organization. Every employee has their talent which could be discovered while implementing the job rotation. It is very important to assign the right task and the right allocation to the right candidate for the productivity of the company.

Job Enlargement

It is a technique in which the number of tasks allocated to an employee increased wherein the duties and responsibilities of employees also increase with time. It can be increased hours or extra days of work (Berdicchia 2016). Appropriate training sessions should be organized for the employees to train them for job enlargement. However, it is not required always as the job enlargement is implemented on the old employees who are already aware of the work. Job enlargement seems interesting and challenging for the employees but it is quite boring for the employees so it is very important to plan job enlargement as it can be a critical decision making for the employees. With the increased tasks the employee will encounter very less number of repetitive tasks. The additional task will increase pressure on the employee to learn new skills. However, job enlargement is not preferred by the employees as they need to complete additional work with no additional pay. Job enlargement refers to adding similar tasks in employees responsibilities which require extra time. There is no need to add new skills in the credentials in job enlargement.

Job Enrichment

Job enrichment is the opposite and different from job enlargement. Job enlargement is considered as boring but job enrichment is considered as satisfying and fun. People feel safe and enjoy the atmosphere of job enrichment. In job enrichment employees receive important and confidential tasks which could be given to the trustworthy employee or a performer. The aim of job enrichment is quite challenging and motivated for the employees. Job enrichment is considered as beneficial for the employees as it allows the employees to prove themselves or to show their skills and talents to handle the work. Job enrichment is also helpful for both employees as well as management (McMann 2017). Rewards and recognition could be achieved in job enrichment which encourages the employees to do more work and he feels that he is important for an organization. However, it also has many limitations that are why many of the employees do not prefer job enrichment because of the changes they witness and do not feel comfortable with it. Repeat tasks could be witnessed in job enrichment which makes, the work boring and dissatisfied. Lack of flexibility, dissatisfaction and boredom are three limitations of job enrichment (Daily, 2015).

I was working with a Multinational company as a receptionist wherein my job responsibility was to greet every call attended by me by mentioning the company’s name for example, ‘Thank you for calling XYZ enterprises. How may I help you?’ These questions invite the people to ask me regarding the appointments or the reason why there were calling. My task was to provide every help possible to them. Within some time my job allocation got changed to a field representative wherein I was supposed to be out from the office whole day engaged with different customers in different allocations which make me change this job as I was hired as a receptionist and the company want me to be multitalented. So, I could say that job rotation is sometimes very challenging if you did not get your favourable allocation.

Personal Power Within the Workplace

Managers or leaders required power to maintain the discipline within the organization or to complete the task within the given time. Leaders need the power to complete the task within the organization. Leader’s power can be referred to the leader’s ability by which they could influence other employees but it is very important to know when and how to use the power (Ramsey, 2015). Only efficient managers know how to use their powers wisely. For an employee, his manager has all the power to protect him or to punish him followed by this fact employee do all the best way to engage himself with the senior manager (Isaiah, 2015). The manager could use his power in both the ways professional and personal. It is important to keep a balance between professional and personal power. Power is a critical but important part of any organization (Moon et al. 2019). Personal power creates more loyalty within the employees if compared to professional power. The employees are more dedicated to professional power than with personal power because in personal power the employees can avoid the order of the leaders who have personal powers. A professional leader had less power as compared to a personal or informal leader. If any leaders are consist of both personal and professional power than it is considered that it has all the power by which he can control the activities going on within the workplace as compared to any leader who has neither the professional power nor the personal power within the workplace (Rowland, 2013).

Power can be used differently in different stages within the organization so both formal and informal managers need to realize and plan how and when these powers could be used. A confident leader could use his powers smartly and can achieve the loyalty of the employees with their work but a weak leader will not be able to achieve either of them after using both personal and professional powers. A leader should know every small thing about their powers. By using the power incorrectly the managers could lose power. Managers should be aware of all the activities going within the organization and should take appropriate steps to improve it. If the employees do not like the behaviour of the employees or they feel that the leader is using his power incorrectly against them they would leave the organization which could also increase attrition rate within the organization. A leader should also use their power to help the employees which could create a bond of trust and loyalty within them. The power is not only used to control the employees but also to help them. Sometimes employee found him stuck between the two leaders which could be an informal and formal leader and both are respected for the employee. To handle this situation it is the responsibility of the leader to help the employees in any challenge he faces within the organization. Power should be enhanced in the organization positively. Power is also based on good skills and network formed by the leaders. It is important to embrace power on positive grounds.

Challenges Faced by The Presence of Stakeholders Within a Project

Every small stakeholder is considered as a big asset for the project as he maintains the balance between the relations within the project and on the other hand they could be considered as a risk for the project. Stakeholder was forced to start and complete the project in less time and in a less budget which was not easy for me as it requires quality work and quality comes when we spend well on them. This fact was considered as very difficult for them to understand it as they thought that everything is possible. I was having a deadline for the project I was working on. I was required to hire a team for that but that was late from their time hence the project was late but one of my senior helped me and was available whole night even after the shift ends just to help me and to complete the project on time. I am very glad to say that his effort and help encouraged me to do work on the project with more energy. We all were working without taking any sleep and witnessed some problems and challenges which was done wrong by us. The design made by us was flawed and we were very anxious about what to do. It makes us redesign it as it was not correct and also was in bad quality. We faced this difficulty just because we used to work extra without resting which in result create mistakes in our work. If I could get more time and a little bit more budget from the stakeholders it would be easier for me to complete the task perfectly. It is very important to share your problems with the stakeholders and to make them understand what could go wrong. Even they want a good plan and project but the main challenge was to talk to them and make them understand. I and my team decided to talk to them and fortunately got 1 week time to complete our project which was delivered successfully. I would suggest the major challenge is only to talk with each stakeholder and to present your project more clearly. I was handling a project where there were many challenges as some of the stakeholders were agreed with my project and some were not. The project remains incomplete if the stakeholders are not happy with the project (Derakhshan 2019). It is very important to keep the stakeholders happy while completing your project or the project could face a lot of challenges if they are unhappy with it. Stakeholders can be anyone customers, organization or sponsors who are involved in the project activities and want it to be perfect. The project manager should take care of both internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders can affect the project, deliveries, and even the team members. I started understanding the needs of the stakeholders as that was the first important step to complete the project. Communication makes everything easy and without communication everything is difficult. It is important to understand what changes they want and why they want to implement those changes within the project (Braund et al, 2019). The manager should understand the power of stakeholders within a project and should analyse all the areas and points of the stakeholders. I started by understanding the points of the stakeholders and try to understand and manage it for example the time and the budget of the project (Unterhitzenberger et al., 2020). The responsibility of the project manager is also to check and the changes with the existing stakeholders as well because every stakeholder is important for the company and the project (Braund et al, 2019). The regular check could improve the work.

References for Project Governance and Stakeholders

Kossek. E and Lautsch. B. 2018. Work-life flexibility for whom? Occupational status and work-life inequality in upper, middle, and lower level jobs. In Academy of Management Annals, 12, pp. 5-36

Hochdörffer, J., Hedler, M., and Lanza, G. 2018.Staff scheduling in job rotation environments considering ergonomic aspects and preservation of qualifications. In Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 46, pp. 103-114.

Berdicchia, D., Nicolli, F. and Masino, G. 2016."Job enlargement, job crafting and the moderating role of self-competence". In Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31 (2), pp. 318-330.

McMann. A., Ellinger. P. & Halbesleben, J. R. 2017. Exploring different operationalizations of employee engagement and their relationships with Workplace Stress and Burnout. Human Resources Development Quarterly, 28(2), pp. 163-195.

Moon, T.W., Hur, W.-M. & Choi, Y.J. 2019. How leaders’ perceived emotional labor leads to followers’ job performance: A serial mediation model, Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 29, (1), pp. 22-44.

Derakhshan, R., Turner, R., & Mancini, M. 2019.Project governance and stakeholders: a literature review. International Journal of Project Management37(1), pp. 98-116.

Daily, V. 2015.Training: getting maximum returns from employees. Retrieved from http/ [Accessed on 26th Oct 2020]

Isaiah, S. 2015. Fundamentals of management, New York: Hougton Miffin Company.

Ramsey, N. 2015. The essentials of human resource management. Abudu: Otoghagua Ent. Nig

Rowland, M. 2013. Human resource management an introduction, Lagos: Labofin and Company.

Braund, Dalgarno, N., McEwen, L. Egan, R., Reid, M.A., & Baxter, S .2019.Involving opthamology 54(5)

Unterhitzenberger, C., Wilson, H., James, D., Rost, M. & Joby, R. (2020). The stakeholders challenge: dealing with challenging situations involving stakeholders: Production Planning & Control, pp.1-16

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Management Assignment Help

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