Business Research Proposal and Literature Review



Literature Review..

Challenges and opportunities of Virtual teams.

Issues linked with remote leadership.

Effectiveness of Virtual teams and leaders.

Strategies for managing virtual teams.



Introduction to Role and Effectiveness of Managers in Virtual Teams

Technology has allowed numerous former personnel to work from home or anywhere distantly. As the overall job setting change, the number of distant personnel will possibly continue to augment. However, it is challenging for leaders or managers to manage remote teams most effectively. In the current competitive environment, high-performing teams are required to attain the goals and objectives. It has been identified that virtual teams are a challenge for leaders or managers. Employees from cross-cultures, time regions and organisation are often converse over significant electronic means. To manage effective teams, there are several approaches like clear objectives, well-defined functions, and tasks, matching capacity, effectual message, admiration for diversity, association management, and many more (Dulebohn & Hoch, 2017). The major challenges to effectively tackle the issues that occur when people converse through the web on numerous projects or they rarely meet face to face. It has been identified that numerous potentially helpful aspects improve output. The effective use of virtual teams allows the organization to perform well and increase productivity. This enables organizations to optimize teams by using only the best talent available. However, communication is one of the main challenges of managing distant virtual teams. It is very hard for a team executive to efficiently express key messages or potential over email, immediate messaging, or conference calls. Also, the virtual teams need inclusion to feel associated with the objectives of the wider team and Organisation. The literature review will be used to analyze different themes related to remote leadership and the role and effectiveness of managers in virtual teams. Finally, the conclusion will summarize the overall analysis.

Literature Review of Role and Effectiveness of Managers in Virtual Teams

Challenges and Opportunities of Virtual Teams

The research work by Ford et al (2017), focuses on identifying Strategies for building effectual virtual teams. Virtual teams are a group of two or more are a group of two or more geographically or managerially synchronized through an amalgamation of Telecommunication and communication Technologies to attain a common goal and objective. The researcher revealed that the virtual teams are highly dependent on suitable communication Technologies that are used to reveal that the organizations must ensure that accumulate and uphold the finest assortment of a team member for the tasks and shows that the team leader is proficient, capable of supervision. Virtual teams providing technology and training to support the team and cautiously monitor the professionals and emotional needs. The findings also highlighted that the leaders act as a communication centre for information. The author revealed that many factors improve the effectiveness of virtual teams including trust. The research revealed that the high degree of trust is more positive, more focused on task results, more positive, more often interactions, and offer more substantive and productive feedback. The research also argues that the leader must be competent enough to gain the faith of the employees. Also, the organization's trustworthiness is compromised when leaders failed to recognize time in cultural differences across team members. It has been observed that the organization highly expects its managers to lead employees in the virtual environment so it is highly essential for them to identify and train them so that they can perform most effectively.

Issues Linked with Remote Leadership

According to Gheni et al (2016), a virtual team’s situation may cause some organizational challenges like maintaining, training, remote management managing educational differences developing trusted relationships among teens. It has also defined that the virtual teams are required to deal with communication complexity decrees, unity, and a high level of disagreement among teams. The study also revealed that technological issues like adjustment and use of communication tools are another challenge that is faced by global virtual teams. Also, these challenges may pose a hazard to the performance of any International virtual teams. The study also added that the Global virtual team includes the individuals who are a group in a team-based arrangement based on telecommunication expertise is to complete the task independently and attend desirable tasks and outcomes. The study also revealed that the Global virtual teams can help the organization to attain various advantages like attaining economies of scale, accelerating Innovation, and having local knowledge and presence. The researcher also highlighted that effective training and development programs are necessary to improve the performance of virtual teams. The findings of the research revealed that different problems associated with the working pattern of virtual teams. The study also revealed that the leaders must be able to identify the necessary issues that may affect the overall working pattern and capability of the employees. The author also argues that effective coordination and communication are the keys to successful virtual teams. The findings indicated that the lack of sufficient training is the highest level of impact on global virtual team performance. The author concluded the leaders must focus on providing effective training and assessing the overall performance outcomes of the Global virtual teams. The study was limited to the leadership challenges of virtual teams.

The purpose of the study is to assess the challenges that the remote leaders face in an organization (Diaz, 2019). To create a knowledge-based structure, it is necessary to use crucial elements like trust, strong relationship, leadership, many more. The findings also revealed that remote leaders face various challenges in managing the team. The major advantages for the remote team are the lack of physical interaction and accompanying non-verbal cues that can help Foster constructive communication. It is the responsibility of leaders to fill the communication gap that exists between superior and remote workers. Technology has played a very important role in supporting the effectiveness of remote employees. It has also been identified that effective Technologies is required to connect the Employees with the organization and attain maximum support from the colleagues as well as peers. The findings also highlighted that the managers must focus on providing a work-life balance advantage to the employee so that they will increase their engagement with the employees. The researcher suggested that it is the responsibility of the managers to hire smart and efficient employees so that they will be able to manage the work most effectively. The study also revealed that the leaders face difficulties in managing a virtual team and paying attention to their issues and concern.

Effectiveness of Virtual Teams and Leaders

The research work by Dulebohn et al (2017), is focusing on understanding the functioning of virtual teams in an organization. The researcher specified that this is highly essential to understand the working style of virtual teams to gain maximum benefit. The study also revealed that virtual teams can provide benefits to employees as well as employers. Employees may like a suppleness to conduct their job in a different place such flexibility may improve the stability of staff, work, and life and potentially enhance their fulfilment with the occupation. The evidence also argued that it is highly challenging to lead a virtual group than conventional face to face teams. The findings of the research specified that leadership plays a necessary role by actively identifying the challenges of the virtual team and assessing the possible benefits. It has been observed that the relationship-oriented leader will be suitable for managing virtual teams in an organization. The study also suggested that the leader's involvement in the virtual team not only create a team procedure but check and administer team performance. The evidence revealed that the virtual teams must be prepared with diverse Technologies that need the team to share exceptional information to interrelate. Leaders of virtual teams would require offering training to the entire team so that they have a shared understanding of how to utilize the technology creatively while setting a clear objective and approach. The researchers also supporting the research work of (Liao, 2017) as it stated that trust is mainly significant in the virtual atmosphere as it reduces member psychological distance. The face-to-face meetings help the new virtual teams and to build up belief and produce a sense of respect among each other. The overall research was useful in understanding the functioning of virtual teams.

Strategies for Managing Virtual Teams

According to Liao (2017), the Global opposition and advancement in technologies have improved the rising tendency of virtual teams to implement the business approach. The study revealed that it is necessary to identify the competencies necessary for virtual leadership effectiveness. Leaders of a virtual team must recognize and accept the dissimilarity that exists among the kind of setting and conservative teamwork to ensure the effective leader and high-performing group driven towards project achievement. The researcher also argued that effective management with virtual leadership competency has been recognized to be an important factor in attaining, flourishing project deliverables. The findings of the research highlighted that the leaders of a virtual team must use a transformational leadership style as it inculcates the definite management competencies that are required to administer all lead members. It has also been identified that transformational leaders are known to endorse faith, allegiance, respect, esteem among followers. The study also highlighted that this leadership approach is very useful for high performance and project achievement. The resources also specify some competencies for the virtual team leader including effective communication, trust and task clearness, clear instructions, dependability, constant feedback. The study is highly useful as it will benefit the virtual team leaders who want to provide the necessary skills and techniques to the virtual team members so that they can achieve the goals and objectives. To gain maximum benefit, it is necessary to utilize trust and communication with others. The findings of the research revealed that virtual teams are becoming more frequently implemented in the organization. The findings of the research revealed that relationship building is one of the major aspects of a virtual team. The researcher also highlighted that the critical component of developing robust communication across the virtual team is to make sure that team members have a high level of team trust. 

The research by Maduka et al (2018), categorize and present tactic that organizations found flourishing in helping your executive lead virtual teams. The findings of the research revealed that the strategies are divided into three categories including organization, leader, and team. The research also revealed that the leaders must for a more virtual team that can incorporate and co-ordinate information, talent, and abilities to complete a task within the specified limit. The findings of the research also revealed that the leaders must provide socio-economic support so that the team will be able to understand the task and attain the objectives. Leaders are responsible to update the best available technology to build crucial connections with employees. They are also responsible for providing access to supporting Information Systems to make sure team members can discover desirable work and personal information. It has been observed that a support plan for sustaining communication is necessary to deal with a breakdown. The assessments can be suitable for leaders to understand what types of skills are required to improve the overall performance of virtual teams. 

Conclusion on Role and Effectiveness of Managers in Virtual Teams

It has been concluded from the overall analysis that leaders help to manage virtual teams. However many challenges are associated with the management of virtual teams. It has also been identified that remote workers who work with colleagues have less access to information, development opportunities so it is highly crucial to provide some incentive and support so that they can manage the work most effectively. The analysis also specified that leaders can promote interaction with team members through effective and updated Technology. Cognitive and emotional faith comes and face-to-face connections which are most hard when working at home. To compensate these leaders can use video contacts or other effective communication channels. The analysis revealed that the leaders face issues in managing Global virtual teams so they have to make necessary changes in their leadership styles. The evidence suggests that the leaders must use transformational and transactional leadership styles to manage the global virtual teams. It has also been identified that leaders must focus on building an effective relationship with the employees to build trust. Furthermore, different kinds of literature have been used to understand the effectiveness of managers in virtual teams and challenges linked with remote leadership. However further research is required to identify and assess the effectiveness of leadership styles.

Reference for Role and Effectiveness of Managers in Virtual Teams

Diaz, S. (2019). Identifying the challenges remote middle managers face.

Dulebohn, J. H., & Hoch, J. E. (2017). Virtual teams in organizations.

Ford, R. C., Piccolo, R. F., & Ford, L. R. (2017). Strategies for building effective virtual teams: Trust is key. Business Horizons, 60(1), 25-34.

Gheni, A. Y., Jusoh, Y. Y., Jabar, M. A., & Ali, N. M. (2016). factors affecting global virtual teams' performance in software projects. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology92(1), 90.

Hyppönen, R. (2017). Leadership in Geographically Dispersed teams: The Impact of Virtuality on Leader’s Role.

Liao, C. (2017). Leadership in virtual teams: A multilevel perspective. Human Resource Management Review27(4), 648-659.

Maduka, N. S., Edwards, H., Greenwood, D., Osborne, A., & Babatunde, S. O. (2018). Analysis of competencies for effective virtual team leadership in building successful organisations. Benchmarking: An International Journal.

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