Table of Contents

Brand Overview.

Target Market of Zara. 

Identification and Major Impacts of Relevant Theories/Concept. 

Future Trends. 


Brand Overview: Zara

Zara is a clothing retailer that has adopted a new approach in the industry. Zara was founded in the year 1963 by Amancio Ortega in Spain. Its parent company, Ortega Family, is 60% owned by INDITEX which had 6.741 billion sales in the year 2005. Zara has approximately 2,000 branches worldwide. There are many choices including collections for children, women and men. Nevertheless a line of cosmetics, perfumes and household products is launched by the brand (Truong, 2016).

Since its inception, Zara's main idea has been to make luxury products available to all. In this way, they were able to democratize the production of luxury goods, stimulated through the   advancement of fashion. By the help of this policy Zara has turned out to be an industry that can now be able to supply trendy products to their consumers at reasonable prices. Along with that, it as well desire to get acquainted with young people. This request is also reflected in the recruitment policy. Zara with style is a fashion that young workers have received a lot of attention. However, Zara understands the nreds of their consumers exactly and responds very quickly to the needs. It is the original secret of Zara and provides a competitive advantage. Zara's goal is to contribute to the "sustainable development of society and the environment in which we communicate." The store saves Zara energy and is environmentally friendly. Also, there is less waste, and there is a tendency to recycle. All staff are aware of Zara’s commitment to the environment. Their products use corrosive environmental fabrics and organic cotton. They produce PVC-free shoes. Using biodiesel fuel for transporting goods, CO2 emissions are reduced by 500 tons per year by the company (Hansen, 2012).

Target Market of Zara

It is an obvious fact to state in this report that Zara is a big name in the field of the Apparel manufacturing and designer clothes. The primary focus group of Zara brand is the people those who are very much conscious about the latest trends and the style that is coming in the market and the target market also focus the people those who can afford it. In addition to this it is also an important fact to state that they have a good edge over the other brands as their price is quite affordable and they provide high quality designer apparels that in turn perfectly satisfies the needs of the end side customers.

Other than this it is also an important aspect to be mentioned in this report that most of the products that is manufactured by Zara is focusing on the female end side customers (in fact it is stated that it is nearly 60 to 70% of their total production), and the rest that is the 30% of the total production it is made in keeping the mind about the male end side customers. Other than this aspect it is very well stated that one of the major target are of Zara are the youngsters those who are in the age range of 20years old to the 30years old at maximum. The designs that they make in their apparels are primarily based on the pop based culture that mostly the teenagers and the youngsters coming out of the college likes and they also try to keep the price within the affordable value so that they can well afford it (Tadajewski, 2019).     

Identification and Major Impacts of Relevant Theories/Concept


Psychoanalytic theory divides the human soul into three forces: ID, ego and superego.

ID: this is something that is responsible for basic drives and applications. Tension is avoided by id and it searches after pleasure, as it operating on the basis of pleasure principle. It is also called unconscious mind.

Pride/Ego: Pride/Ego is the conscious mind. It works on the principle of reality. Arrogance develops from ID because in the real world there are limitations when it comes to handling it. The ego consists of perception, thoughts, memories and emotions. It gives a person a sense of identity and continuity. The ego is introverted and conscious, and the ego is an executive aspect of personality.

Super Ego: ethical and moral aspects of the human mental structure are controlled by Super Ego. Social system can be interrupted by Super ego and as well it affects ego.  Those who are strived for perfection are affected by super ego. It as well helps the people to pursue goals that meet the moral parameters which are set by society and culture (Natoli, 2019).

Apply for Customer Behavior

The notion that behavior is driven by irrational forces is intrigued in Sigmund Freud's nephew, Edward L. Burns. He started a well-known propaganda campaign that tried to remove people without understanding their behavior. One of his efforts focuses on women who smoke.

According to the American Psychological Association, the mainstay of Lucky Strike's "Torch of Freedom" campaign during New York's annual Easter Parade was to equate smoking with male potency. `Burns bought the debut list from editors of Vogue and created the idea that in most places Fifth Avenue-burning and smoking cigarettes could contribute to women's rights development. The media was warned in advance and could not resist the story: the Torch of Freedom Parade appeared not only in local newspapers, but also in national and international newspapers.

Other marketers have tried to apply psychology theory to consumer behavior. A large application uses Freud's input to create brand images. When a brand can escape from deep desire, imagination, aggression or life, customers can identify a particular line of brand or product with aspiration (Berger, 2016).

In an influential chaotic life, decisions and ideas are all interrelated and there are various theories that explore how these decisions affect consumer behavior (CB). CB is defined as the conduct of searching, purchasing / protecting, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services to meet their needs.

The psychodynamic theory of consumer behavior was created by an interaction based on the underlying motives of human personality and the concept of the unconscious power of the individual. Moreover, people see the world this way with their own eyes. Freud (1923) created a topographic model of the heart that describes the structure and functional features of the heart. Freud used the Iceberg analogy to explain the three levels of the mind, ID, Super Go (both unconscious mind) and ego (part of consciousness). Thus, basic instinct shows individual parts of personality ID from satisfaction to satisfaction, and arrogance tries to meet the requirements of ID, which shows what is acceptable in superstition.

Personality is extremely broad and dynamic, and it is described that personality is regarded as a psychological trait that makes a person unique and how it affects / controls the response to the external environment. This Freudian theory emphasizes the importance of unconscious motivation towards direct purchase and how individuals use the principles of reality to ensure acceptance in the outside world Someone’s personality influences the response to marketing stimuli. This method is important for marketing, companies conduct in-depth research from consumers to understand why consumers are unaware of buying a particular product. Marketing strategies by understanding the psychological aspects of how they feel think and reason

  1. Influenced by the environment and others

  2. How customers value / interest / value the product

  3. How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns

Companies that create powerful ads, such as marketing plans, can communicate the products they want, but they also meet the requirements to be considered socially acceptable. Therefore, all these considered CBs can be affected in different ways and the psychodynamic theory shows a great deal of personality. For example, looking at childhood experiences, underdeveloped people can increase the demand of young people to fill their ID (Foxall, 2017).

Understanding Freud's Motivational Theory

Freud's motivational theory is often applied in many cases, including sales and marketing, to help customers understand motivation when making a purchase or decision. More precisely, Freud's theory relates to product quality such as texture, taste and smell and how the ingredients of a product evoke a sensitive response from a customer, which can lead to a marketer or buyer. It can remind one what to do with a person's purchase. For example, a sales representative might ask a customer who is trying to buy furniture if this is the first home the consumer has ever lived in. If one answers yes, sales representative will be able to specify a way to give the consumers peace of mind that the furniture is warm or comfortable.

Freud's Theory of Motivation

Freud believed that human consciousness could be divided into a conscious mind and an unconscious mind. The ego that represents consciousness consists of thoughts, memories, perceptions, and sensations that give a person a sense of their identity and uniqueness. An ID representing the unconscious mind is a natural, biologically determined instinct. Also, not everyone is committed to inspiration, so Superego presents a moderate element of the traditional theological theological morality and prohibition of society. These ideas help market researchers determine why a consumer makes a specific purchase based on their conscious and unconscious motives and the weight of social expectations.

Use Freud's Theory of Motives

If an organization wants to limit the success of a new product, they will list market researchers to uncover the hidden motives of the selected customer group and to persuade the buying habit. They can use many techniques to understand deeper strategies such as role-playing, image interpretation, sentence completion, word attachment and many more in-depth exercises. Helps. For example, if one buy a certain brand of computer, one can feel smart, successful, productive and dignified. Marketers can use this information to create brand identity (Kimmel, 2018).

Significance of Psychoanalytic Theory on the Marketing plan of Zara

It is an obvious fact to state in this report that Zara is a big name in the field of the Apparel manufacturing and designer clothes and in order to sustain in the global competitive market the thing that they need is a good and an effective marketing plan and in order to have a good and a convincing marketing plan it is very important for the policy framers of the Zara to understand the behavior of the end side customers and for that they use the theory that is named as the Psychoanalytic Theory of Consumer Behavior and the aspects that it includes in analyzing the nature of the customers are as follows:

Firstly it helps the policy framers of Zara to understand the conscious and the sub-conscious mind of the customer and that in turn plays an important role in understanding the needs of the end side customer and that in turn helps the manufacturers to manufacture the clothes that wills satisfy the customers, the concerned theory ( that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this  case) is quiet significant because it plays a pivotal role in analyzing the ego and the super ego of the end side customers which in turn influences the purchasing behavior of the customer of the apprehensive corporation ( that is Zara) and the in turn is going to influence the profitability of the company to some extent, the concerned theory ( that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this case) plays an important role in determining the cultural determinants of the consumer and that in turn helps the policy framers of the concerned company ( that is Zara) that what type of apparels they are going to purchase in the present and in the future and that in turn helps to manufacture and design the marketing plan which is going to satisfy the needs of the customers.

In totaling to this it is also obvious information to state that the Psychoanalytic Theory is quiet unmistakable for the marketing arrangement of Zara because it helps the policy framers of Zara to understand that which group needs to be of focus. It is quiet an evident fact to state that the Psychoanalytical Theory plays an significant function in understanding the preconscious state of the end side customers mind and that in turn makes the marketing plan of the concerned company (that is Zara) quiet effective in nature and this in turn is going to influence the profitability of the concerned company (that is Zara). It is also an important fact to state that this concerned theory (that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this case) plays an important role in understanding the superego of the concerned end side customers of the apprehensive corporation that is Zara. Other than this it is also an important fact to state that this concerned theory (that is Psychoanalytical skills) acting a significant function in formative the purchasing capacity of the concerned end side customers of the apprehensive corporation.

In accumulation to this it is also a considerable fact to state that this apprehensive hypothesis (that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this case) plays an important role in determining the motivation level of the end side customers and that in turn helps the policy framers of Zara to design the marketing plan in an effective way. Other than this it is also an important fact to state that this concerned theory (that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this case) acting an significant responsibility in address the core issues of the end side customers behavior and in turn it also helps in framing the proper and an effective strategy of the end side customers of the apprehensive corporation (that is Zara). In addition to this the concerned strategy (that is Psychoanalytical Theory in this case) plays an important role in determining the rationality of the concerned end side customers and that in turns helps the strategists of Zara to frame such a kind of policy which is going to convince the needs of the clientele (Simpson, 2020 ).

Psychoanalytic theory help to understand consumer behavior in better way. Consumer behavior is a part of marketing. Just like other disciplines of science such as sociology, anthropology, psychology, social psychology and economics helps to understand the science behind the marketing. Similarly, psychoanalytic approach helps marketers to understand the changing consumers’ needs, wants and identities. Doing so, it helps to increase its product lines, profit margin and net sale in the market as compared to many other rival players. On the other hand, consumer behavior is a progressive science and with the help of this marketing professionals are becoming more effective to reach the targeted customer in a better way and augments values to the organization.

Similar strategy is used by ZARA. Although it is a known brand in the fashion world still its ranking is not in the topmost position. It has retail fashion chains situated at all over the world. Its products also available at online stores and e commerce platforms. ZARA is continuing expanding its business by increasing the number of stores rather than the advertising in the conventional way. This became possible for ZARA as it can understand the needs, wants and identities to be served to the customers and the way the clients can become satisfied. To do so, it implemented psychoanalytic strategy to analyze the altering desires of the target people. For example: now a days ZARA became successful in producing varied types of “plus size” garments for its customers. 

At the same time, ZARA tries to read the existing customers’ behavior with the help of the feedbacks and reviews. As per the needs of the consumers, ZARA always ties to customize its products and the blend of the culture acted as the boon for the company. For example: Casual laid-back clothing and accessories for the younger generation and high ended cloths for the cosmopolitan men as well as women. Apart from this, urban and modern fashion style is merged to develop an inventive product, which is loved and praised by people of this age in an effectual way. Other than this, study on psychoanalytic theory also helped to analyze the data among the group of people or the customers to judge the requirement of customers. Western Countries ladies loves to wear mini skirt, midi, shorts etc but Indian ladies primly prefer kurtis, salwar suits etc. So psychoanalytic study proved extremely helpful in identifying the values and requires merged with inventiveness. Psychoanalytic theory also helped ZARA to prepare its pricing policy as well. Hence, it became successful in offering products in low, medium and high price ranges and so it is easily affordable for customers of varied race, creed and cultures.

Psychoanalytic theory also divided the human psyche into three factors: id, ego and super ego. Additionally, the represented model includes varied types of biological forces like (id), human consciousness (ego) and societal forces (super ego). All these three factors also reflects the personality development, and it influences the human motivation and needs. On this base, the products are also prepared by Zara. For this reason, it is considered one of the successful and branded organization in the fashion segment.           

Future Trends

The fashion trends are quiet dynamic in nature and they continue to change with the time so Zara being a big name in the field of the apparel and fashion designing industry also needs to come up with such kinds of ideas which will make them capable enough to cope with the present market scenario. They have a good and an effective market survey team which helps them to understand the needs of the end side customers and that in turn helps them to come up with the new apparel designs, new type of materials that are being used for the manufacturing of the concerned designer apparel. In addition to this it is also an evident fact to state that the Sequin pants are nowadays is in the current trend list of Zara. In the winter times the trend that generally demands is the Wool Blend High Collar sweater. Other than this it is also an evident fact to state that the future trend of Zara demands for the huge lot of production of the Mohair Blend Woolen sweaters and that also at an affordable range. The other future trend list of Zara comprises of the apparels such as: Firstly coming to the aspect of the designer boots that can be well contrasted with the apparels that are being purchased, in fact there is also a huge demand of the modern design skirts in the market for company like Zara. In fact one of the trends that is coming in the future is the Polka Dot Tulle skirt (Macdonald, 2019). 


Berger, A.A., 2016. A psychoanalytic approach to marketing. In Marketing and American Consumer Culture (pp. 25-35). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Foxall, G., 2017. Context and cognition in consumer psychology: How perception and emotion guide action. Routledge.

Gotteland, D., Grenoble Ecole de Management  2019 .12 rue Pierre Sémard 38000 Grenoble david. gotteland@ grenoble-em. com.

Hansen, S., 2012. How Zara grew into the world’s largest fashion retailer. The New York Times9.

Kimmel, A.J., 2018. Psychological foundations of marketing: the keys to consumer behavior. Routledge.

Macdonald, M., 2019. From recognition to intersubjectivity: Hegel and psychoanalysis. In The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychoanalysis.

Natoli, A.P., 2019. The DSM’s reconnection to psychoanalytic theory through the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association67(6), pp.1023-1045.

Simpson, P., 2020. Church leaders’ narratives: An exploration in uncertainty and complexity.

Tadajewski, M., 2019. Habit as a central concept in marketing. Marketing Theory19(4), pp.447-466.

Truong, N.V., 2016. Fashion Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Lead Time Reduction and Environmental Sustainability: Case Studies from Zara and Everlane (Doctoral dissertation).

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Consumer Behaviour Assignment Help

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