• Subject Name : Nursing

Culturally Safe Health Care Practices

Introduction to Biased Treatment Measures in Healthcare

A patient is an individual who should not expect to receive care lower than the standard because of their race, culture, age, association, or any other characteristic. However, in Australia people usually faces this type of bias between individual and groups based on color and culture. Black Australians are treated negatively or in any other category of an attribute such as behaving violently. Moreover, biasness within treatment is done by non-behavioral manifestation like less eye contact and physical proximity. The biasness is also an association between in the manner that person is behaving and actions towards that. Prejudices and stereotypes are the major health concern in Australia because of the discrimination between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Here, in this essay, the concept of intersectionality will be described by including the points on cultural or social discrepancies (Drewniak, Krones and Wild 2017).

In the health sector, there are various points based on which framework of health has been emerged attempting to which there are improved perceptions of disparity effects of health strategies and create comprehensive and social wellbeing results. Intersectionality is deep-rooted in the lengthy and ingrained record of Black, Indigenous, third world, postcolonial, and curious feminism in Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS). The unique nature of paradigm is related with that species of humans cannot be abridged to solitary features, the knowledges of persons cannot be unspoken by ordering only one solitary factor, the communal groups such as race, civilization, locations, class, gender, and social construction are the powers that are affecting both. Intersectionality is the characteristic that allows judgment-fabricators to go beyond the classifications that are favored by equity drawn analysis and the determinants of health.

The assessment of health impacts is considered by complex interactions and relationships such as gender expression, age, religion, immigration status, indigeneity, ability, and immigration status. Moreover, it enables the analysis of the immediate impact of strictness to structures and systems that impact domination and oppression such as heterosexism, racism, classism, ableism, and prejudice. Intersectionality majorly deals with the conceptual shift of civil society, researchers, and public health professionals to understand the interactions and relationships. The requirement here is of maintaining relationships with the constituting factors of structural disadvantage and social isolation as a determinant of inequity and equity beyond health (Hider, Whitehurst and Thomas et al., 2016).

I believe that all human beings have their values, attitudes, and beliefs throughout their course of life. My cultural location, attitudes, and beliefs affected a lot in bringing care to patients. As I observed that community service workers of my organization were working with the people who are vulnerable and have a different lifestyle that mainstream society being acceptable in a different way. The community service workers provided services that meet the needs of target groups and help them make empowered to ask about their health. However, here comes the focus on the awareness values, attitudes, and beliefs that are to be adopted for professional values of the healthcare sector. Values are the standards, qualities, and principles that hold each person. However, here Indigenous groups faced challenges in getting healthcare decisions based on their values. It was because they hold were assumed as they are old-fashioned, wear less costly clothes, and they are not even entertained to get involved in sports. The sources of values, beliefs, and attitudes are culture, media, family, peers, life events, religion, music, historical events, educational institutions, and the workplace (Drummond, Sculpher and Claxton et al. 2015).

The healthcare system of Australia is inadequate to ensure a socially safe natural environment for the Indigenous population to get the finest and optimum outcomes. This has led to demeaning and disempowering the healthcare system in the country. This results in a reduction of treatment or complete disengagement. Clinicians in healthcare institutions need to be culturally engaged in providing clinical care. Moreover, the other staff should also address the assumptions that lead to addressing social safety for improving outcomes noting the experiences of Indigenous people towards conservative care. The clinician and patient should in such a way that they enhance interaction to make a change in health and organizational settings (Eiring, Landmark and Aas et al., 2016). The management should propose a framework to attend the problems and interact with patients. Coordinated care pathways should be developed to establish a framework that matches the role of the Indigenous population. Specifically, it should appropriately design delivery mechanisms for the delivery of information, appropriate information, and culturally acceptable tool to deliver education within healthcare staff, inclusion of families, and adequate follow-up.

Organizational change is a way to form an essential companion to individual practitioner development. The involvement mechanism should be such that it involves continuous quality improvement methods and interventions that help in bridging gaps, arguing change mechanisms, and prescribing caution to serve in related changes. Indigenous health and cultural safety training should be provided that forms institutional resistance. The barriers should be overcome by manifestation, institutional resistance, underfunding, and marginalization that require organizational change as compulsory. Cultural safety is very important in the profession that includes taking steps to reduce resistance but also the governing system for the maintenance of clinical quality and professionalism. This will involve investment in professional development and clinical education to measure accountability. The Department of Health should look after Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders to overlook the existing system and monitor performance. The quality standards collaborate on the revision of guidelines to insert socially safe and develop health situations free of charge of racism (Sabin, Riskind and Nosek, 2015).

Healthcare professionals must value the views of patients to reduce biasness. This way that should be chosen so that the treatment and clinical decision making should be appreciated (Birkhäuer, Gaab and Kossowsky et al 2017). Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders are the underserved group of the population that is given very few services, but they should be respected so that the clinical decisions are not influenced by socioeconomic status, ethnicity, social background, and race. The strategies must be developed such that own awareness, recognition, empathy, activism, and education (Katkade, Sanders and Zou, 2018). The way should be looked forward to understanding the beliefs and values that lead to unconscious bias. Personal awareness is the matter that requires daily interactions to stay on the right path with the threat of consciousness. The action should be taken on the point where the problem exists to accept responsibility and accountability using empathy. Empathy is followed to understand the feeling of the population so that the staff reacts to the patient’s problem accordingly. The points such as contribution to community development activities, participation in campaigns against discrimination, contribution towards community development activities should be there (Viswanathan, Patnode and Berkman et al., 2018).

Conclusion on Biased Treatment Measures in Healthcare

Healthcare providers should not do any bias at the time of healthcare service delivery. It is usually very bad for addressing the client’s problem. The unmanaged and unrecognized biasness can lead to disparities in health that result in negative consequences of patients. Healthcare professionals must follow strategies according to me so that they can optimally overcome biasness.

References for Biased Treatment Measures in Healthcare

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) http://www.abs.gov.au/

Birkhäuer, J., Gaab, J., Kossowsky, J., Hasler, S., Krummenacher, P., Werner, C. and Gerger, H., 2017. Trust in the health care professional and health outcome: A meta-analysis. PloS one12(2), p.e0170988. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170988

Drewniak, D., Krones, T., and Wild, V. 2017. Do attitudes and behavior of health care professionals exacerbate health care disparities among immigrant and ethnic minority groups? An integrative literature reviews. International journal of nursing studies70, 89-98. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020748917300494

Drummond, M. F., Sculpher, M. J., Claxton, K., Stoddart, G. L., and Torrance, G. W. 2015. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programs. Oxford university press. https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=yzZSCwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Biased+treatment+matters+in+health+care&ots=_aVhnG1uFH&sig=xuR1dCkDVEA2zJbcLmLhT8pkSwE&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

FitzGerald, C. and Hurst, S., 2017. Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. BMC medical ethics18(1), p.19. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8

Hider, S. L., Whitehurst, D. G., Thomas, E. and Foster, N. E. 2015. Pain location matters the impact of leg pain on health care use, work disability, and quality of life in patients with low back pain. European Spine Journal24(3), 444-451. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00586-014-3355-2

Kaskade, V. B., Sanders, K. N., and Zou, K. H. 2018. Real-world data: an opportunity to supplement existing evidence for the use of long-established medicines in health care decision making. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare11, 295. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2FJMDH.S160029

Sabin, J.A., Riskind, R.G. and Nosek, B.A., 2015. Health care providers’ implicit and explicit attitudes toward lesbian women and gay men. American Journal of Public Health105(9), pp.1831-1841. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2015.302631

Viswanathan, M., Patnode, C. D., Berkman, N. D., Bass, E. B., Chang, S., Hartling, L., ... and Kane, R. L. 2017. Assessing the risk of bias in systematic reviews of health care interventions. In Methods guide for effectiveness and comparative effectiveness reviews [Internet]. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519366/

Wiring, Ø., Landmark, B. F., Aas, E., Salkeld, G., Nylenna, M., and Nytrøen, K. 2015. What matters to patients? A systematic review of preferences for medication-associated outcomes in mental disorders. BMJ Open5(4). https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/4/e007848.short

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