• Subject Name : Accounting & Finance

Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Financing in Canada

Concerning psychology, self-determination is one of the primary concept defining the presence of abilities among each concept individuals to make certain choices and at the same time also managing their own life. This plays an effective role in the psychological health and well-being. Self-determination allows people to feel that they are having the control over their own choices and the livelihood. Under this perspective, the self-determination concerning the Aboriginals shall take into consideration (Calma, p.128). The Aboriginals are those individuals who are comprised of the diverse Aboriginal nations having their own language identity and have their own cultures and traditional values. Previously policies that were introduced during the 1970s were not effective enough for the Aboriginals.

The statement is criticized since there do exist certain cost and benefits of self –determination concerning Aboriginals. Hocking (2018, p.11) outlined that the developmental policy plays an important role to determine the enjoyment level of self-determination for the indigenous people. Practical evidence on self-determination highlights that according to The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Indigenous People is now working as one of the independent authority which is defined as an internationally acclaimed legal non-binding instrument. It helps in setting the minimum standards for the survival, dignity, and the indigenous people’s well-being. This is the benefit of the Declaration reaffirming both the fundamental and universal human rights (Martin, 2018). “The UN Declaration consists of a preamble and 46 articles, which cover a wide range of human rights and fundamental freedoms related to indigenous peoples. The preamble is ‘beautifully drafted [and] contains many of the sentiments and values that humankind holds highest’. The preamble affirms general and fundamental principles infused throughout all the Declaration’s provisions. The principle of equality is acknowledged: ‘indigenous peoples are equal to all other people” (Richland, p935).

Some authors critically goes against the statement that is the “policies introduced during the 1970s have not delivered better outcomes. The research evidence highlights that self-determination means basic human rights, which conveys instrumental value for the well-being of the individuals. In Australia, the representative bodies of the Indigenous Australians like the Aboriginals and most recently the National Congress of the Australian First Peoples are considered as some of the important vehicles besides the Indigenous Australian. However, there do exist certain costs in the context of the self-determination of Indigenous Aboriginals. During the 1970s, it has been found that there exists a lack of communication and engagement with the Indigenous Australians and this was the reason for which the economic, cultural as well as political rights among the Indigenous Australians were hampered. During the 1970s, self-determination for the Indigenous Australians was defined as one of the guiding principles to settle down the Indigenous Affairs through which the paternalistic policies of the assimilation were followed. Different concerns have been raised during that time like the Northern Territory Emergency Response to control certain regarding the lives of the Indigenous Australians. According to Calma (2017, p.255) for most of the Indigenous people, self-determination is defined as one of the Indigenous policy’s primary piece where intention fetches attention rather than action.

The views that have been proposed by Myers (2015), highlights the principles of self-determination like the recognition of cultural diversity along with geographical diversity, mutual capacity building along with the indigenous decision-making patterns. On the ground, self-determination needs to be understood well and also needed to be expressed through the process of the alternative framework which outlines relational procedures of self-determination especially concerning the natural world, towards collectively and to sustainability. During 2010, the Yawuru well-being project was initiated where that particular Aboriginal class have been provided with an opportunity to keep their statement regarding their lad and the issues, which they are facing. Calma (2017, p.259) highlighted, the consideration of both of the political and the legal frameworks and at the same time the exercise of their rights and land entitlements which can be exercised and can be negotiated.

At the time of exercising the self-determination under the recognition phase of the Yawuru Wellbeing project, both of the self-determination along with the autonomy turns out to be critical for that particular class of the people to ensure that the power relations were well transformed. Yawuru is the knowledge co-producers through which rights, wellbeing’s and the recognitions were conceptualized well. The benefit for the Yawuru was that they had tried to develop their language skills by personally involving themselves with the establishment of the Yawuru Language Centre, which in turn will lead towards the revitalization of the Yawuru language. Through the theory of self-determination, the country management along with the culture turns out to be one of the prime responsibility as well as right based on which the intrinsic connection among Yawuru it the land got developed physically, spiritually, and also emotionally. Richland (2016, p937) outlined, “Yawuru exercise control over and maintains their connection to country and culture is through the sharing of Yawuru culture with other Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups” This was the considerable benefits where Yawuru was self-determined and also had a say on their usage of land and also the establishment of their connections. The centrality on the right to self-determination is adequately linked to a certain choice of which is enjoyed by the Indigenous Australians. However again, it have been argued by the authors, Calma (2017, p.255), that the challenges which have often being faced are the dysfunctional decision-making by the Aboriginals which sometimes goes against the policy considerations of the concerned country. Here the realistic policy evaluation strategy needs to be taken into consideration where the achievement in the context of the human well-being along with the agency achievement needed to be well explored.

The adoption of agency freedom is necessary here with which the entire set of valuable capabilities can be made possible contributing towards personal well-being ever; there existed a link between the Indigenous Aboriginals in the policy development with the service delivery as being highlighted through the Aboriginal Community Health Services sector. Nowadays, it is worth noting that the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Care Sector was developed on the self-determination principle where the local people have been granted in achieving their self-goals in certain areas of primary clinical care, community supports along with the establishment of special needs programs as well as advocacies. The United States evidence reflects positive health and wellbeing outcomes among the Indigenous Communities at the time of managing health care (Hocking, 2018, p.7). The Indigenous nations are progressed towards self-defined economic as well as community development goals to generate genuine decision-making control over the internal affairs and the resources.

To conclude, self-determination is having both the intrinsic and the instrumental value for Indigenous Australians where they needed to be provided with a certain autonomy, which will be important for both the national and the international levels. This had created a minimal impact on Indigenous community living standards. Both recognition and inclusion of the traditional Aboriginal medicines are having the actual potentialities in empowering the Aboriginals through which the self-esteem can be strengthened well through the effective revaluation of the identity and the culture. This helps in the promotion and support of the Aboriginal's traditional medicines and the healers within Australia.

References for Benefits and Costs Associated with Self-Determination

Calma, T., Dudgeon, P. and Bray, A., 2017. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social and emotional wellbeing and mental health. Australian Psychologist, 52(4), pp.255-260

Hocking, J., 2018. ‘A transforming sentiment in this country’: The Whitlam government and Indigenous self‐determination. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 77(S1), pp.S5-S12

Martin, D.F. and Finlayson, J., 2018. Linking accountability and self-determination in Aboriginal organisations

Myers, F. and Peterson, N., 2016. Experiments in self-determination: Histories of the outstation movement in Australia. ANU press

Pinto, L.E. and Blue, L., 2017. Aboriginal entrepreneurship financing in Canada: Walking the fine line between self-determination and colonization. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 9(1), pp.2-20

Richland, J.B., 2016. Dignity as (Self-) Determination: Hopi Sovereignty in the Face of US Dispossessions. Law & Social Inquiry, 41(4), pp.917-938

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