Gender and Development

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction to local government:

2.0 Case Description:

3.0 Proposal Description:

4.0 Issues and approaches:

4.1 Local Analysis of Gender Equality:

4.2 Actions needed to be implemented as per the strategy;

4.3 Success Factor

1.0 Introduction to Local Government:

The local government selected here is of Victoria. The council has employed more than 45000 workers who is working and leading the gender equality case. Although more than half of the administrative workforce in the local government sector is female, less than half of the directors and managers are women. Only one in six council presidents are women. As the level of government closest to communities, it is important that councils reflect the diversity of the communities they serve and represent. This includes women, young people, people with disabilities and people from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Victoria Local Government (LGV) seeks to support the sector in this space through leadership, coordination and guidance.

2.0 Case Description:

This principle being formally recognized, at the legal level, however, there are persistent situations of inequality and asymmetries in the comparative situation of men, national and local levels. The implementation of the National Strategy for Equality of Gender aims to start a path that leads the municipality of Australia where:

- Individually, everyone has the opportunity to develop your personal abilities and freely take options for personal, family and professional fulfillment, constraints based on gender stereotypes;

- Collectively, men and women hold the same visibility, the same power and levels of participation and decision in all dimensions of local / municipal life.

Despite official equality between men and women in the work, Australian women still earn, on average, less than men. The principle of "equal pay for work of equal value" has was adopted over 30 years ago by Australia's federal industrial relations tribunal (Australian Federal Industrial Relations Tribunal) responsible for determine the wage rate (Healey, 2009). And already, the figures for 2010 of the Australian Bureau of Statistics show that men's wages at full time (excluding overtime) amount on average at A $ 67,223 2 per year, while the average annual salary of full-time women was AU $ 56,950. In 2010, the jurisprudence and the law have contributed to the fight against inequality of income between men and women. This is, on the one hand, the current case, the Pay Equity case, in front of Fair Work Australia, and on the other hand, of the enactment of the Paid Parental Leave Act 2010 (Cth).

The intention of this strategy is to integrate, the promotion of Gender Equality, it is important to identify, for each of the axes, which departments are involved, and to be involved, in implementation:

  1. Territory

Departments in whose domains of activity are verified and inequalities in the comparative situation of men and women

  1. Knowledge

Departments where studies and popular characteristics are produced that allow to know the comparative situation of men and women

  1. Communication

Communication Department and all those who produce contents

  1. Human Resources

Human resources department as it is a long-term strategy, due to its social nature of its objectives and the multiplicity of agents mobilizing the operationalization of the actions to be carried out, and the methodologies evaluation of the progress achieved, will be subject to special treatment through the elaboration of action plans and progress reports corresponding assessment criteria

3.0 Proposal Description:

Concept that means, on the one hand, that all human beings are free to develop their personal abilities and to make choices, regardless of the roles assigned to men and, on the other, that the diverse behaviors, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally considered and valued (Glossary of terms on equality between women and men, European Commission, 1998). Gender equality means an equal visibility, empowerment and participation of both sexes in all spheres of life public and private. Gender equality includes the right to difference, which means taking into account of the differences existing between women and men related to their respective social classes, political opinions, religions, ethnicities, races or sexual preferences .Thus, gender equality is the opposite of gender inequality and not the difference in that is, gender inequality is not related to the differences associated with gender biological sex, but with the differences resulting from the way society sees and treats each one of the sexes. Gender equality aims to promote the full participation of women and men in society. Some services raise awareness of this issue. So far, about a thousand people have decided to fight against discrimination that has hit them. Nonetheless, there are still unexplained differences in wages and as regards training and career. At the theoretical and strategic level, this document is based on the principles of non-discrimination based on sex and gender equality as a central aspect of promoting fairer, more equitable and sustainable global development.

The proposal is related to explicitly set as a positive example promoting equality and non-discrimination on the basis of gender, taking into account its role and dimension as an entity driving local development and also while employer. Recognizing the importance of the principle of gender equality, this strategy is drafted from view to the definition and implementation of an integrated strategy in this domain (Holzhammer, 2014). The objectives of the strategy include the encouragement of participation women in the workforce and the promotion of gender equality (Kay, Alarie and Adjei, 2016). The strategy is based on following assumption:

  1. The promotion of Gender Equality contributes decisively for the development of an equitable, inclusive territory and cohesive, as well as for economic and social development, guaranteeing the use of all human capital;
  2. Promoting Gender Equality means always having online taking into account the needs, interests, expectations and competences of both women and men, incorporating them in the definition, implementation and evaluation of local policies;
  3. Promoting Gender Equality requires permanent analysis of social, economic and cultural systems and structures in order to identify (and eliminate) contexts, procedures discriminatory practices or practices (direct and indirect) in gender, in the sense of overcoming inequalities still exist

4.0 Issues and Approaches:

Gender equality (socially, economically, politically, and cultural) is a principle of social justice and a foundation of democracy. Some of the situations related to gender inequality faced includes the permanence of differences in income between men and women; female underrepresentation in political and economic decision-making bodies; the over representation of women in the poorest population groups; segmentation of labor market with professions and sectors of activity strongly masculinized or feminized; the lower participation of men in family sphere such as women (at the level of household chores and care for dependent people); the lowest rates of activity and female employment versus male employment; the recent under-representation men at higher education levels, etc. (Eleanora, 2018). These differences and asymmetries, resulting from historical factors, social and cultural, lack reflection and political intervention in order to determine the barriers and constraints that provoke, while identifying ways to overcome them. For that, it becomes necessary, at the municipal level, to implement actions concrete measures that promote gender equality, mobilizing all the community and its agents (municipal services, business sector private and municipal, civil society organizations, education sector, families and people). The right to equal opportunities has a more theoretical than practical application. Equality between men and women is a global problem. The condition of women has always been subjected to less privileged treatment than that of men. The inferiority of the woman is seen from a social and economic point of view, her exclusion from a series of rights and activities is motivated by unfounded reasons, such as physical inferiority or the predestined role of mother and maid (Holzhammer, 2014). A few years ago the figure of the career woman appeared, independent from both an economic and social point of view. The woman has always had the task of procreation. Despite this, the state often does not bother to go against new mothers, granting them a longer period of absence from work and favoring a better growth of children. On average, women earn around 18% less than men. The reasons for this gap are various. Based on an analysis, however, only 56% of the gap can be explained by factors such as status career, years of service or qualifications, while 44% of the gap remains unexplained (Maluleke, 2012).

As an approach to gender equality is indispensable integrated and transversal in the autarchy, it is foreseen in the scope of this strategy, a gradual extension of the departments and units to involve, avoiding their confinement to social action, as well as a progressive intervention in terms of its axes. This extension to the different organizational units should be accompanied by the appointment of reference persons within each department with a view to forming an interdepartmental team for equality, specializing in gender issues in their area of intervention (e.g. education, culture, sport, youth, resources communication, etc.) (Perisanidi, 2016). Crosswise to the intervention axes and with a view to achieve strategic objectives, fall within the scope includes following types of actions:

a) Give visibility- Actions that aim to give visibility to the principle Gender Equality and / or that promote reflection around the roles and living conditions of men and women;

b) Promote equal opportunities- Actions that promote equal opportunities in participation, access and enjoyment goods, resources and services;

c) overcome inequality- Actions that aim to identify and overcome asymmetries, segmentation and discrimination based on of the kind.

4.1 Local Analysis of Gender Equality:

The collection of relevant information for a Local Diagnosis of Gender equality is a central aspect of this strategy. It is search for knowledge, often hampered by the absence of information disaggregated by the sex variable, requires the commitment and working of the various entities that collect and process information concerning the municipality, in order to be able to measure, on the one hand, real incidence of inequalities and, on the other hand, the gains of a intervention focused on promoting gender equality

4.2 Actions Needed to Be Implemented as Per the Strategy;

Promoting equal probability:

  • Use of planning methodologies involving population groups (men and women) women), ensuring parallel mechanisms that facilitate the participation of people with family responsibilities (e.g. occupation of children)
  • Evaluation of the impact of policies and projects in men and women (e.g. rates of membership and participation by gender; results obtained in the target group by gender) ensure equity in the results obtained
  • Flexibility of service schedules service to the publics
  • Use of research methodologies listening and participation of population groups (ensuring parity gender) in the definition of your own needs, welfare criteria and necessary answers

Overcoming dis-equality:

  • Increase in support for associations with joint governing bodies in terms of their composition
  • Increase in support for women's sport
  • Actions directed at boys and girls who contradict gender stereotypes when level of professions, social roles and activities in which they participate
  • Support for female entrepreneurship
  • Promotion of parity (men / women) at the level of staff by types of career and by area (departments / departments municipalities), contradicting sectors masculinized and feminized

Promoting equal portability

  • Disseminate information that responds specific needs and interests of men and women
  • Mechanisms that facilitate reconciliation professional, personal and family life employees

4.3 Success Factor

With the adoption of the Municipal Strategy for Gender Equality, the National Government can actively contribute to brig improvement of gender indicators in the municipality, and for the progressive overcoming of inequalities and asymmetries between men and women. This commitment covers all areas of responsibility, with each one

analysis of your intervention to ensure compliance with the objectives of this Strategy. Whereas the promotion of gender equality does not imply necessarily do more, but do it differently the resources to be allocated for the implementation of gender strategies are mostly at the level of the Municipality's human capital and its qualification for the challenge in question. This is a challenge that reinforces the reference position of the Municipality at the level of the promotion of Gender Equality at national level, strengthening social, economic and cultural competitiveness municipality, in favor of the quality of life of all people, men and women, who live and work in Cascais. To achieve the establishment of a society based on equality, it is essential that the institutions local and regional fully integrate the gender dimension into their policies, in your organization and related procedures. In the world of today and tomorrow, effective equality between women and men is also the key to success economic and social - not only at European or national level but also in our municipalities.

References for Undermining Gender Equality

Eleanora, F., 2018. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, EQUALITY OF GENDER AND SOCIAL ETHICS. Diponegoro Law Review, 3(2), p.277.

Holzhammer, M., 2014. The Proposed Gender Equality Directive: Legality, Legitimacy, and Efficacy of Mandated Gender Equality in Business Leadership. Yearbook of European Law, 33(1), pp.433-465.

Kay, F., Alarie, S. and Adjei, J., 2016. Undermining Gender Equality: Female Attrition from Private Law Practice. Law & Society Review, 50(3), pp.766-801.

Perisanidi, M., 2016. Should we Abstain? Spousal Equality in Twelfth-century Byzantine Canon Law. Gender & History, 28(2), pp.422-437.

Maluleke, M., 2012. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality. Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad, 15(1).

Healey, J., 2009. Gender Equality. Thirroul, N.S.W.: Spinney Press.

Government Response. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.

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