Advanced Epidemiology - Question 1


General study type

Specific study type

Study A



Study B



Study C



Study D



e) Ranking of the studies based on their designs is as follows.

  • Study D
  • Study B
  • Study A
  • Study C

Advanced Epidemiology - Question 2


General study type

Specific study type

Study A



Study B


Case series

Advanced Epidemiology - Question 3

a) The figures presented in the table reflect the result of the survey of medical test called coronary arteriography among the male and female population. From the demonstrated fact, it has also being reflected that women are likely to have a low risk of coronary arteries than men. In this respect, specific reasons have been highlighted in the section below.

This can arise in terms of having a soft order towards a particular population group. For instance in the current case, women have been defeated in terms of having a normal blood circulation than the male population.

The aspects having a string sense of feminism also contributes to the biases in the current conclusion. The aspect of having feminism tends to have the tendency of defending women or female population in each stage (Henseler, 2017).

Perceiving women as a fragile object can lead to the biases in the current conclusion. In most of the cases the male population are perceived to be stronger than the worm and also tends to be perceived as carrying all the burden of the family, society and others aspects from a small age.

b) Based on the mentioned biases it can be reflected that, perceiving women as a fragile object is having the highest chances of prevailing within the current study. It is because, women are perceived to be having less responsibility than the male population at a younger age and thus are tension free (Cui et al. 2017). This limits the possibility of facing low pressure than that. Besides, in the study, the number of female participants in the research is lower than the male population, whereas, the normal coronary arteries is seen mostly ion the female population than the male population. Hence, this aspects within the research can be controlled. It is because, if the researcher perceive the female population equal to that of the male population, then it could have been affected the current research in a different way.

c) The influence of female weakness in the research can be controlled through changes in the thought process of the researchers carrying the investigation. In addition to this, selection of male and female participants within the investigation must be equal in order to have a fair analysis rather than being bias on a particular community or population (Zhang et al. 2018). Hence, proper selection of research candidates and having an open mind van influence the investigation in a positive way.

Advanced Epidemiology - Question 4

a) Simple Random Sampling methods are the methods of a survey that is used in the household survey. It is because the sample population will be selected randomly from 10 urban districts henceforth reflecting the methods of simple random sampling.

b) Simple Randomsampling methods helps in selecting participants randomly based on the concerned matter. However, based on the selection methods offered by the mentioned sampling techniques, there are certain advantages and disadvantages attached to it (Duarte et al. 2018).

Advantages of Simple Random Sampling includes

  • Lack of biases regarding the selection of participants in the research
  • Using simplicity to select participants and execute the research

Disadvantages of Simple Random Sampling includes

  • Difficulty in terms of accessing the list of survey participants taking part in the research
  • Consumes high amount of time
  • Consumes a high amount of cost
  • The issue in biases in certain aspects of selecting the area

The aspects mentioned above reflect the advantages and disadvantages of the methods used in the household survey of the research. Based on this analysis, it can be concluded that the selection of the mentioned methods may be beneficial based on the concerned matter.

c) Women those are likely to be sampled must represent each of the sections indicated in the presented instances. A strategic way of selecting women will be best to apply the preferred methods of sampling within each group of women as per the proposed study (Fishman & Penuel, 2018). It includes women with lower educational qualification, women with low occupational level and women with high dress level.

d) Selecting a specific area and neglecting another area for running the experiments can be observed as biases in this study chosen.

Advanced Epidemiology - Question 5

a) The mentioned study reflects Experimental study in general and Cross-Sectional study in specific.

b) Based on the observed instances it can be assumed that the Experimental research has been chosen in public alongside the selection of cross-sectional study in specific to derive the conclusion of having a harmonious relationship between the breast cancer and fat consumption. However, argued by the prospective cohort studies fat consumption always does not leads to breast cancer among women. In this respect, the limitations of the study design may result in the worn inference derived from the current study.

  • It is having high chances of producing artificial results based on the gathered instances.
  • Results that are derived from the study may be an application for a single criterion and possess difficulty in replication (Cole & Packer, 2016)
  • It is high time-consuming.
  • High relation of the practical and ethical problem in terms of variable control
  • Difficulty in measuring the human responses
  • Results of the research are highly subjected to the possible errors from the human being.
  • The experiments are capable of creating an artificial situation that is not realistic.

Based on the observed limitations presented above it can be concluded that the researchers conducted with the help of this design are likely to be diverted to other instances creating negative results not viable to the research circumstances (Lendlein & Trask, 2018). Hence, the limitations are highly influential to research situations.

Reference List for Design Approaches and Research Challenges

Cole, M., & Packer, M. (2016).Design-based intervention research as the science of the doubly artificial.Journal of the Learning Sciences, 25(4), 503-530. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Cui, Y., Li, T., Liu, C., Wang, X., &Kühlewind, M. (2017). Innovating transport with QUIC: Design approaches and research challenges. IEEE Internet Computing, 21(2), 72-76. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Duarte, A. M. B., Brendel, N., Degbelo, A., &Kray, C. (2018). Participatory design and participatory research: An HCI case study with young forced migrants. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 25(1), 1-39. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Fishman, B. J., &Penuel, W. R. (2018).Design-based implementation research.International Handbook of the Learning Sciences, 393-400. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Henseler, J. (2017). Bridging design and behavioural research with variance-based structural equation modeling.Journal of Advertising, 46(1), 178-192. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Lendlein, A., & Trask, R. S. (2018). Multifunctional materials: Concepts, function-structure relationships, knowledge-based design, translational materials research. Multifunctional Materials, 1(1), 010201. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

Zhang, D., Liu, L., Liu, M., Xu, R., Gong, C., Zhang, J., ...& Su, G. (2018). Review of conceptual design and fundamental research of molten salt reactors in China. International Journal of Energy Research, 42(5), 1834-1848. Retrieved on 25 June 2020, from:

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