Risk Management in Engineering

Executive Summary of Risk Management Plan

This report aimed at the understanding and formation of a risk management plan. Industries and organizations have been prone to various risks both parametric and non-parametric. Hence, almost every industry utilizes these plans to identify these risks, prevent them and formulate plans to curb the effects of these risks. This report aimed at the formation of a risk management plan for Williams Geismar Olefin Plant which produces mainly ethylene and propylene. On the 13th of June in 2013, one of the reboilers was fed with hot water without the knowledge of the presence of liquid propane in the tank. As a result, the propane expanded, and with no venting mechanism, the growing pressure inside the tank caused it to explode claiming two lives and injuring 167 employees who were present on sight. The risk management plan aimed at understanding possible stakeholders of the company and their roles and responsibilities in risk analysis and mitigation. The report also discussed the communication and consultation strategies which are mainly used by industries and how Williams Geismar Olefin Plant can make use of these strategies. The risk treatment process discussed the FMECA technique to identify risks, its effects and critically analyse them and form the tolerability of risk table. Since the incident, the company has also made several changes in its processes such as redesigning the reboilers, etc. The risk treatment section discussed the similar changes made by the plant to avert any possible risks in the future and also discussed the recommendations made by the CSB team after the investigation was complete. The monitoring and review section discussed some of the procedures which can be followed by the plant to monitor each process and sub-system of the plant.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary..


ISO 31000:2009.


ISO 31010:2018.

The Incident at the Williams Geismar Olefins Plant..

Risk Management Plan..

Stakeholders and Constraints.

Rules, Responsibilities and Roles.

Processes and Tools.

Risk Criteria..

Communication and Consultation..

Risk Communication Strategies.

Risk Consultation Strategies.

Risk Assessment..

Risk Tolerability Criteria..

Risk Treatment..

Monitoring and Review...



Introduction to Risk Management Plan

Every organization in the society is prone to risks. Risks can be classified depending on their nature and effect on certain sections of an organization. Technical risks are used to describe the risk associated to the improper design procedures used by the organization to setup different processes at the industry. Construction risks comprise of lack of labour, failure of equipment, etc. Organizational risks include labour experience and improper communication. Environmental risks include natural disasters and risks possessed by the organization to the environment [1]. While setting up projects or carrying out procedures at manufacturing units, it can be tough to document the risks as they are uncertain and the organization and its management haven’t been subjected to it. Since there are almost every company and industry prone to risks, there are 4 possible ways to handle a risk, which includes avoiding a risk which is to make sure the procedures are being carried out with utmost care and as per the set standards. The next possible way is to mitigate those risks is by carrying out countermeasures which can help reduce the after effects of the risk. The third way is to transfer the risk which is to take help from other organizations or associates so that the organization concerned of the risk does not have be concerned about the them. The most common way to understand this process is insurances. The final way to handle a risk is to accept it. In certain cases, it can be tough to either avoid, mitigate or transfer a risk. In such cases, the best possible way to overcome risks is to accept it. This is generally done when organizations lack set standards and procedures to counter attack these risks and its after effects. Risk management plans constitute of the documents which are prepared by project management teams and organizational managers to formulate preventive measure and safety plans which are required to foresee the risks associated to it under uncontrollable circumstances and also estimate the impacts. This report aims at setting up a risk management plan for Williams Geismar Olefin Plant which experienced an explosion in 2013. The explosion was a result of human errors as the process controllers were unable to identify the presence of chemicals inside a tank and allowing it to fill with heated water. As a result, the chemical present in the tank expanded rapidly and with the absence of pressure sensors and pressure relief valves, the tank exploded launching it to a height of 30 feet. The report aims at understanding the stakeholders, their roles in risk management process and procedures to setup effective communication and consultation between them. The report also discusses the risk assessment and risk treatment procedures for the olefin manufacturing plant. The monitoring and review section suggest some ways in which the plant can monitor the procedures and sub-systems of the plant.

ISO 31000:2009

The ISO 31000:2009 was created by the Technical Management Based Working Group division of the International Organization of Standardisation. The ISO standard comprises of 11 principles related to risk management systems. They include points such as risks management creates value, it is an integral part of the organisational process, it is part of decision making, it explicitly address the uncertainties, it is structured, systematic and timely, it is created on the grounds of the best available information, it is tailored, it also takes humans and cultural factors into consideration, it is transparent and inclusive, it is dynamic and also iterative and responsive to changes and finally it facilitates continual improvement [2]. 


Failure mode, effects and critical analysis (FMECA) is a procedure carried out to facilitate quantitative failure analysis. It is used at understanding he underlying risk at any industry with its effects and the causes of those risks which is considered as their critical analysis [3]. This procedure leads to various benefits for organization including several design and development businesses with increased reliability, enhanced quality, effective safety margins and lesser development time and time spent in re-designing the system.

ISO 31010:2018

The ISO 31010:2018 is a standard which controls the risk management procedures set by the ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission. It is a standard which supports the ISO 31000 which control the communication, consultation, risk assessment and the monitoring and reviewing the risks. This standard was set to establish risk management and risk assessment techniques [23].

The Incident at the Williams Geismar Olefins Plant

The Williams Geismar Olefins Plant was set up in the year 1968 by the Allied Corporation under Allied Chemicals which also has its branches in the chemical, aerospace and the automotive and the oil and gas industries. The plant has been manufacturing various chemicals including ethane, propane and polymer grade propylene. The company is known to operate an approximate amount of 15,000 worth of distance in miles in terms of interstate gas pipelines and 1000 miles of NGL transportation pipelines. The company also holds around 10,000 miles long oil and gas gathering pipelines [4].

As per the investigations carried out by the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board more commonly known as the CSB, the Olefin blast based in Geismar had experienced a blast on the morning of the 13th of June in 2013. The blast was caused due to rapid expansion of propane in one of the reboilers of the plant which was based on human errors. Before the blasts, the operations supervisor of the plant has experienced a decrease in water flow levels to the main tank known as reboiler A. Due to decrease in water levels in the main tank and the absence of the operations manager, the operations supervisor had decided to oversee this defect and decided to open the valves to the second tank, reboiler B so as to continue the normal operation without halting the process and affecting the daily production. The reboiler B was a standby reboiler and since it had not been used for many months prior to it, it was difficult for the plant manager to be aware of the presence of propane in the tank. Due to absence of any sensing mechanism in the tank to test for the presence of any chemicals in it and due to the irresponsible nature of the operations supervisor, the moment the heated water entered the tank, it heated the present liquid propane in it causing it to expand and explode. The onsite witnesses had claimed to the CSB investigators the time duration between the tank being injected with heated water and the explosion to be approximate 3 minutes. The explosion was so severe that it claimed the life of a worker present near the tank and injuring other 167 workers. The operations supervisor succumbed to the severe burn injuries the very next day [5].

Risk Management Plan

Stakeholders and Constraints

A stakeholder is used to refer to a group or an organization which are either directly or indirectly connected to a company and can be affected by the business and its processes. Considering the case of the William Geismar Olefins Plant, the people who were directly affected by the explosion at the faculty were the organization of the plant, the investors of the company, the parent company and the local community present in the area. The local community residing in the area had been harshly affected as the nearby residents had to vacate the area in a 2-mile radius [5].

Key Stakeholder

Define Phase

Measure Phase

Analyse Phase

Improve Phase

Control Phase

Local Community






Plant management committee






Parent organization






Business partners






Government Agencies




Table 1Stakeholder participation table [18]

Rules, Responsibilities and Roles

Every Stakeholder has a role to play and adhere to certain responsibilities to help organization avert risks and its adverse consequences. The local and central governments, individuals and other stakeholders play an important, complicated and differentiated roles which can help the William Geismar Olefin Plant prevent any risks including the ones similar to that which took place on the 13th of June in 2013.


Rules and Responsibilities


The government can play a major role in averting risks associated to manufacturing industries by setting up standards and keeping a close watch on the procedures and material management being carried out in such industries.

Managing committee at the plant

The managing committee of the plant can help avert risks by hiring well trained and qualified employees.

It should also focus on making use of devices and instrumentation which can monitor various processes and assist the management in monitoring each and every step at every process carried out in the plant.

Investors and parent organizations

The investors and parent organization should focus on constant reporting by the operation managers and other organizational leaders. Constant reporting will help investors and the parent organization to monitor that the processes are being carried out as per the standards set by the government and by the organization.

Business Partners

Business partners should in a similar way as that of the investors and the parent organization focus on the processes and tasks being carried out at the plant through timely meetings and reports.

Local Community

The local community can play a major role in averting risks by helping the organization focus on sustainability and alerting the authorities of any ill-practises and lack of proper management at the plant.

Table 2 Stakeholder responsibilities

Processes and Tools

The Williams Geismar Olefin Plant explosion had taken place in the second reboiler labelled as EA-425B due to malfunctioning of reboiler A. The start point for the production of olefins is where ethane and propane are fed to a cracking furnace wherein, they are converted into two different products ethylene and propylene with the formation of many by-products such as butadiene, methane and hydrogen and some aromatic compounds. The reboilers A and B are considered as shell and tube heat exchangers where the tube side hot quench water is used to vaporise the shell side hydrocarbon fluid which is comprised of approximate amounts of up to 95% of propane with the balance of propylene and C4s [5]. 

Risk Criteria

Risk criteria is used as a reference and is used as a base of evaluation for the significance or the importance of an organization’s risk. It is also used to determine whether or not a specific level of risk can be considered as an acceptable or tolerable risk. As per the CSB investigations, the team conducting a Process Hazard Analysis at the olefin plant had emphasized on the evaluation of equipment for proper over-pressure equipment. The team had also mentioned in their reports to ensure that at least one of the manual valves were locked open with each propylene reboiler such that the relief vales could act as thermal relief protection mechanisms for the reboilers. However, the plant had marked these procedures as completed but the reboilers lacked the implementation of them as suggested by the PHA team. The CSB team upon investigation found out that the reboiler B lacked the presence of an open valve on the shell side of the tank and no protective gear. This led to the reboiler being isolated from the relief device on top of the propylene fractionator creating a high-risk scenario [5]. 

Communication and Consultation

Communication and consultation play an important role in the risk management process as it helps in accessing knowledge, it facilitates the fulfilment of the obligations of transparency and act as a source of information of what is required from others during a process such as a risk management plan. Communication plays an important role in risk management plans as it helps project supervisors and managers to share information with others about how risks can be avoided and countermeasures if in case, the plant experiences any of those risks [6]. Consultation on the other hand, is a method used by organizations and its stakeholders to establish a two-way channel to help them conduct an informed communication. This is done based on an issue before planning and determining a direction for any particular task or process. It can also be described as a process which impacts a decision through its influence rather than its power and acts as an input method for decision making [7].

Risk Communication Strategies

The real meaning of risk communication is to setup an interactive exchange of information and not just a one way process. The strategies required to setup proper communication channels at the Williams Geismar Olefin Plant can be carried out by combining various steps which can help analyse possible risks and develop procedures to shape the dialogue.

  1. Analyse the risk type:

The first step to ensure proper communication is to identify potential risks and its types. The types of risks which a chemical industry such as the William Geismar Olefin Plant can be subjected to are suspicion of hazards, exposure to pollutants and accidents. The blast at the olefin plant was subjected to all three kinds of risks as the blast was an accident which led to the hazard of exposure of chemicals released during the explosion of heated propane.

  1. Setting Up Procedure to Shape the Dialogue

The steps taken to setup dialogue to facilitate proper and effective risk communication can be carried out by identifying the possible stakeholders, selecting the procedures and items to be accessed. The possible stakeholders for the Olefin plant include the parent company, investors, business partners, employees and residents of the nearby area. Procedure selection for risk communication cam again be divided into certain steps which include understanding the scope that is how many people need to be reached out and the tools used to share information with the stakeholders, the order of knowledge sharing. The final step in this process is to setup resources which can help eliminating long approval sequences and avoid the confusion caused in the chain of command.

  1. Conducting a trust audit:

The audit procedure required to access the trust value in the organization includes the appraisal of the company by intertest groups and addressing trust problems. Appraisal of the company is used to understand the reasons of strength and weaknesses in matters of trust and addressing trust problems includes strengthening the trust in processes, transformation into personal trust and laying emphasis on the participation and involvement.

  1. Core Topics of Risk Communication

The risk communication must be focused on understanding the viewpoints and concerns of the address. This step helps in understanding the key risk perspectives such as who could be affected by those risks and what could be the consequences of the exposure of these risks to different stakeholders [8].

Risk Consultation Strategies

The process of risk management plans depend on the consultation of internal and external stakeholders throughout the development of the risk management framework. Unlike any other business strategy, risk consultation is effective on understanding and mitigating risks if the necessary elements are communicated to designated stakeholder at the right time [19].

Every stakeholder has a diverse point of view, so if the communication and consultation procedures are carried out effectively, it can contribute significantly to the formation of a risk management plan [7].

Risk Assessment

Failure mode, effect and critical analysis is used to describe a process which is carried out by organizations using a reliability evaluation technique used to identify the potential failures and its sources within a system and its components. It is based on two different analysis procedures which is the failure mode and effect analysis and the critical analysis. It is a technique used to identify risks, prioritize them and eliminate potential failures from the system or its sub-systems. The pre-requisites which form the foundation for an FMECA report include the design related information of the system being analysed, equipment data and block diagrams of the processes and tasks being carried out at the plant [9]. Below described is a FMECA analysis for the valve control and pressure sensors in the reboilers of the plant. The analysis consists of a total 16 tables hence, it has been bifurcated into two different tables to accommodate the data [10].

System Name

Valve Control and Pressure Sensing

Subsystem Name

Valve control and Sensor Data

Part Name

Boiler Control

Item Number


Functional Failure

Failure Mode

Operational Phase


Failure Rate

(per hour)



The boiler control mechanism controls the inlet and outlet valves of the reboiler and the pressure sensors placed on the top of the reboiler sense the internal pressure of the reboiler.

Inaccurate sensor and uncontrollable valve.

Valve jammed, sensor data inaccurate

All phases

a) Uncontrollable amounts of water entering the reboiler.

b) No information of internal pressure of the tank and the nature of chemicals present in it.


Engineering Calculation Estimate


Table 3 FMECA Table (part 1)

Williams Geismar Olefins Plant FMECA

Report Number:


Report Date:

Work Unit Code

Detecting Monitor

Detecting Method(s)


Fault-Coverage Detection

Fault Coverage Isolation


Consequences of Incorrect Options

Mission Abort



Corrupted sensor data values, changes in flow speeds of heated water.

Alarm actuation

Re-route heated water to tanks with effective pressure sensors.

Chemical leaks, uncontrollable expansion of chemicals leading to explosion.



Table 4 FMECA Table (part 2)

In the above table, the fault coverage detection and the fault coverage isolation can be calculated using mathematical formulas.

Fault Coverage Detection [10] =1-(Sum of all components in the system) (Sum of Undetectable Failure Mode)

Sum of all components in the system

Fault Coverage Isolation [10]=1-(Sum of all components in the system)(Sum if non- isolatable failure mode)

(Sum of all components in the system)(Sum of detectable failure modes)

Risk Tolerability Criteria

Risk acceptance criteria or more commonly known as the risk tolerability criteria is used to define the total risk level which is considered as an acceptable level of risk with context to any definite activity period. The criteria is a reference used for the evaluation of the needs of the preventive measure required for risk causing factors and hence, they need to be defined before the risk analysis is carried out [11]. Risk acceptance is analysed over various factors which are considered to be affected by potential risks. Risk acceptance can be divided into various sub-categories including human safety, economic risks and environmental risks [12]. The procedure carried out for the risk tolerability table formation can be carried out in various steps. These steps include determining the criteria to be developed, determining the principles for setting the base foundation for the risk criteria, analyse the data associated to the occurrence of the accident in the past, analysing the stakeholders views and selecting the metrics to be used, defining the risk acceptance criteria based on these inputs followed by safety performance and individual risk analysis and revalidation of the risk criteria [13].

Tolerability of Risk Table




Amount of Risk (1-5)


Valve control

The processes at the plant include various valves to control the flow of reactants and their products.



Pressure Sensors

Pressure sensors are used to monitor the internal pressure inside reboiler tanks



Valve Position Sensors

These sensors are required to update the current position of these valves that is either open or close state.


Table 5 Tolerability of Risk Table [22]

Risk Treatment

Risk treatment can be described as a process which is employed to modify or prevent a risk from taking place by altering some of the consequences that could take place or there exist the chances of its occurrence. This procedure of risk treatment takes place in two distinct steps. The first step includes proactive context in which an organization has developed a risk management system in a system of management and it plays an important role in decision making. In the second step, reactive context plays an important role as the organization plans to study the risks created by the decisions made such that the risk treatment can serve as a remedy for the future [14]. But risk treatment measure is also linked to some of the drawbacks. There have been incidents where in companies have been exposed to adverse consequences which have results of deliberate actions performed. Since the explosion at the Williams Geismar Olefin plant, the management committee of the plant has made major changes in designing systems and process controls to safeguard the plant against any potential hazards. The major changes made by the plant include redesigning the reboiler systems to prevent their isolation from the pressure relief valves, an improved management system to promote collaboration and updating the procedure for process hazard analysis. The further risk treatment procedures which the management committee of the plant could add to their processes include implementing a continual improvement program which can help improve the safety culture at the plant. It can also design and establish a process safety metric program which can track the various processes at the plant and understand their nature that is if they are being carried out before or after their designated time frames. According to the CSB, the plant should also focus on the industrial standards formulated by the American Petroleum Institute [20].

Monitoring and Review of Risk Management Plan

Many industries and organizations make use of high-end protocols and machinery to monitor processes and events being carried out at a manufacturing plant. In industries, several machines are run for several hours and at times it can become difficult to manage them. Project managers and supervisors depend on various methods and processes to monitor these machines in real time and provide predictive and preventive maintenance. Industrial process monitoring has been prevalent in many industries for over a century now. With the launch of industry 4.0 and the big data movement, industries have now been presented with opportunities to enable their performance to newer levels. To monitor any process, organizations make use of models which establish the normal operating conditions. These models are based on either Gaussian models, binomial models and latent variable models which depend on the object being supervised. Some processes include monitoring processes which are based non-parametric models. These models are used to monitor systems which do not produce fixed mathematical values and depend on qualitative analysis. Industrial monitoring is not just on reading parametric and non-parametric data using dedicated mechanisms but is also based on the past data about the process, the development of mathematical models and flowsheets [15].

Hence, to monitor processes at Williams Geismar Olefin Plant, the management can make use of strategies and plans to monitor their systems in real time and avert any potential risks. Chemical industries have been relying highly on high grade sensors to sense and measure various chemicals produced during processes and acting as inputs to these processes and also to sense the leak of any of the chemical components. In chemical manufacturing plants similar to William Geismar Olefin Plant it becomes important to monitor the leakage of airborne contaminants as they lead to serious consequences on human health and the environment around. The plant can make use of UAV based monitoring systems and artificial neural networks to monitor the process for any leakage. The remote UAV based monitoring system can be equipped with sensors to sense different chemicals and notify the base station if it finds the presence of any contaminant and notify the supervisors and managers the type of leakage and its source. In general, a chemical industry would monitor such data using monitoring stations and therefore, the accuracy of this data depends largely on the distribution of this data from a station to the main hub and the total number of stations deployed. It can also be difficult for stations to monitor leakages as the contaminant might be lighter than air and hence, rise vertically upwards without being exposed to the sensor. Therefore, UAV systems can hover over the sub-systems and main systems of the plant equipped with different sensing mechanisms to monitor the plant for any leakages. Artificial neural networks can also be used alongside UAV systems to enhance the source prediction. In chemical industries, possible leakage points can be made known by conventional methods. Hence, pre-defined leakage points can act as a classifier to the ANN model along with other inputs such as wind direction and wind speed. Proper training of the ANN model can help the plant determine the source of leakage accurately [16].

The plant can also make use of sensor fusion techniques by deploying multiple sensors at various point in the process. The incident at plant was mainly due to the presence of propane in the second reboiler which could have been prevented by deploying sensors to check for leakages and the present state of valves. To monitor each process, multiple sensors can be used and fused together using a Bayesian model. This method is capable to fuse together multiple sensors and eliminate spurious signals [17].

Discussion on Risk Management Plan

The Williams Geismar Olefin Plant blasts is considered one of the most fatal industrial accidents which was caused due to human errors and the lack of important control procedures and safety mechanisms. The CSB upon investigation of the fatal accident presented a 72 page long report on how the plant management committee was aware of the missing protocols and equipment required to prevent hazards but rather treated it as a regulatory requirement for after the fact activities rather than a tool to understand the potential risks which the plant was exposed to. The explosion killed a person on spot and claimed the life of the operations supervisor the next day due to severe burn injuries and injured 167 other employees of the plant [21]. To mitigate such hazards and to monitor process, it becomes important to form plans and procedures to understand the risks which an organization could be exposed to and formulate aftermath processes to reduce the impact of the risk. Risk management plans help organization and industries document these risks, their effects and their control procedures. Various standard forming committees have also formulated certain standards and protocols which can help industries plan out their risk treatment procedures. Risk management plans help organization leaders and managers to identify, analyse and prioritize and then respond accordingly to risks which could arrive in a project during its lifetime. The very first step to form an RMP is to understand the people who could be affected by the risk which the industry could face, officially known as stakeholders. In the case of the Williams Geismar Olefins Plant, the plant committee, employees, business partners, investors, the parent company and the local community form the stakeholders. These stakeholders have certain roles and responsibilities to be played at every point in the project cycle. If the stakeholders follow their set rules and responsibilities at each stage of the project, the industry can not only prevent risks from causing hazardous consequences but also reduce its after effects. For example, if the government imposed a compulsion for industries such as the Williams Geismar Olefin Plant to employ safety procedures and proper process controls rather than leaving it for individual industries to take decisions over such issues, constant monitoring by government agencies could have ensured that proper safety mechanisms were employed at the plant, hence averting the risk of hazards. Hence, each stakeholder plays an important role in identification and prevention of risks. This can be further enhanced by promoting proper communication and consultation strategies. The stakeholders for any organization belong to diverse backgrounds hence, perceive different things with distinguishable approaches. Proper communication and consultation procedures can help Williams Geismar Olefin Plant understand diverse risks and accordingly form mitigation plans. Stakeholder and community consultation play a major role in the formation of risk management plans as they help understand the different decisions through influence and not by power and facilitates effective decision making. After potential risks have been identified, FMECA technique helps in understanding those risks, its effects and critically analyse them. The procedure includes the formation of a detailed table which includes every piece of necessary information related to each risk including its nature, consequences, chances of occurrence and mitigation methods. However, since the incident, the Williams Geismar Olefin Plant has managed to incorporate newer methods and processes to safeguard the plant against risks including redesigning the reboilers and an enhanced process management system.

References for Risk Management Plan

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[4] n.a., Williams Partners’ Olefins Production Plant, Louisiana, n.d. [Online]. Available: https://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/williams-olefins-production-plant-louisiana/

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[6] Standards Australia, Communicating and Consulting about risks, n.d. [Online]. Available: https://infostore.saiglobal.com/preview/293451415350.pdf?sku=129667_SAIG_AS_AS_274411#:~:text=Communication%20and%20consultation%20are%20continual,regarding%20the%20management%20of%20risk.

[7] Western Australian Planning Commission, Coastal hazard risk management adaptation planning guidelines, 2019.

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[9] El-Dogdog, T. M., El-Assak, A. M., Abdel-Aziz, I. and El-Betar, A., “Implementation of FMECA and Fishbone Techniques Reliability Centred Maintenance Planning“, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(11), 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ahmed_El-Assal/publication/312581807_Implementation_of_FMECA_and_Fishbone_Techniques_in_Reliability_Centred_Maintenance_Planning/links/5883060aa6fdcc6b790ef20b/Implementation-of-FMECA-and-Fishbone-Techniques-in-Reliability-Centred-Maintenance-Planning.pdf

[10] Dukes, T. J., Schmidt, B. M. and Yu, Y., “FMECA-Based Analyses: A SMART Foundation”, 2017 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), pp 1-6. [Online]. Available: 10.1109/RAM.2017.7889723

[11] Bai, Y. and Jin, W. L., “Risk Assessment Methodology, Marine Structural Design”, 2, 2016. 

[12] Diamantidis, D, “A Critical View on Environmental and Human Risk Acceptance Criteria”, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 8(1), 2017. [Online[. Available: http://www.ijesd.org/vol8/921-R0006.pdf

[13] Van Coile, R., Hopkin, D., Lange, D., Jomaas, G. and Bisby, L., “The need for hierarchies of acceptance criteria for probabilistic risk assessments in fire engineering”, Fire technology, 55(4), pp 1111-1146, 2019.

[14] Broadleaf, Risk assessment and treatment, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://broadleaf.com.au/resource-material/risk-assessment-and-risk-treatment/

[15] Reiss, M. S. and Gins, G., “Industrial process monitoring in the big data/industry 4.0 era: From detection, to diagnosis, to prognosis”, Processes, 5(3), p 35.

[16] Qui, S., Chen, B., Wang, R., Zhu, Z., Wang, Y. and Qui, X., “Estimating contaminant source in chemical industry park using UAV-based monitoring platform, artificial neural network and atmospheric dispersion simulation”, RSC Advances, 7(63), pp 39726-39738, 2017. [Online]. Available: 10.1039/C7RA05637K

[17] Wang, Z. and Chiang, L., Wang, Z. and Chiang, L., 2019. “Monitoring Chemical Processes Using Judicious Fusion of Multi-Rate Sensor Data”, Sensors, 19(10), p.2240.

[18] Sunder, M. V., “Lean six sigma project management–a stakeholder management perspective”, The TQM Journal, 28(1), pp.132-150, 2016.

[19] Hill, E., ISO 31000: Communication and Consultation, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://quality.eqms.co.uk/blog/iso-31000-communication-consultation

[20] n.a., CSB Issues Final Report on Deadly 2013 Williams Olefins Plant Explosion, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.process-heating.com/articles/91926-csb-issues-final-report-on-deadly-2013-williams-olefins-plant-explosion

[21] Mitchell, D. J., Williams Olefins' safety deficiencies led to fatal 2013 blast, federal agency finds, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/article_45c2840a-9609-11e6-b663-ebef6afd7f18.html

[22] Wang, J., Zou, P. X. W. and Li, P. P., “Critical factors and paths influencing construction workers’ safety risk tolerances”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 93, pp 267-279, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2015.11.027

[23] Popova, L., Yashina, M., Babynina, L., Ryzshakova, A., Yefremova, N. and Andreev, A., “The Quality Management Development based on Risk-based Thinking Approach according to ISO 9001”, Calitatea, 20(170), pp 58-63, 2019.

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