Bioscience - Answer 2

The normal range of oxygen saturation level in human beings is above 95%. If this value is low then problems could arise. The person might suffer from hypoxemia which is a condition in which oxygen levels within the blood drops than the normal range. If these levels go further below then, the functioning of the body gets disturbed and the cells might get damaged. With that, people could also develop anaemia, carbon monoxide toxicity etc. That is why it is required to keep the oxygen saturation in the homeostatic range (Vold et al., 2015). The oxygen transport system includes various components such as haemoglobin inside red blood cells, blood, lungs, alveoli and so on. First, the oxygen is taken inside the body via nose. From there, it comes into lungs and from then it travels to alveoli. Inside alveoli, the oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide as the blood which comes into the lungs carries more concentration of carbon dioxide. The exchange of gases takes place due to concentration gradient and thus oxygen becomes bound to the haemoglobin in red blood cells (Rhodes & Varacallo, 2019). The red blood cell carries oxygen to the tissues with the help of blood. After that, oxygen is unloaded at the required site from the haemoglobin. For this, multiple factors come into play, for example, oxygen concentration gradient, pH, 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate concentration and temperature. However, the most significant factor is the concentration of haemoglobin and the saturation level of oxygen. The transfer takes place again due to the concentration gradient. The oxygen level will be lowered in the tissues that are why oxygen moves from higher concentration level to lower concentration level. By this process, oxygen from alveoli goes within the cells of the body (Rhodes & Varacallo, 2019). Knowing about oxygen transport in the body helps in interpreting about patient’s oxygen saturation reading as saturation of oxygen estimates about the quantity of haemoglobin is bonded with oxygen and how much of it remains unbound. A single molecule of haemoglobin has the affinity of binding with four oxygen molecules. Therefore, it can easily carry four oxygen molecules to the tissues. Hence, calculating oxygen saturation helps in knowing the ratio of deoxygenated haemoglobin to the oxygenated haemoglobin. This can be done by making use of a device which measures this ratio. One such device which is often used is pulse oximeter (Hafen & Sharma, 2019).

Bioscience - Answer 3

Two dietary sources of saturated fats are red meat and cheese. The impact of saturated fats is that it increases the danger of cardiovascular diseases. A person thus can suffer from a heart attack or a stroke. Intake of these products in the diet leads to a rise in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Due to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherosclerosis can occur in the cardiovascular system of the body. Atherosclerosis is the condition in which fatty materials get deposited on the endothelium. The plaque which is produced hinders the blood flow in the veins and arteries and also causes problems like chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue and so on (Briggs et al., 2017; Marcel & Engelke, 2018). 

Two dietary sources of unsaturated fats are sunflower and olive oil. They play an important role in the healthy cardiovascular system as they are good for the heart because they reduce the blood pressure and triglycerides which is a kind of fat within the blood. Due to this, plaque is not build up in the arteries and there will be lower less risk of cardiovascular diseases. It was also found out that, unsaturated fats decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol also which is a major reason for atherosclerosis. Thus, plaque formation will not happen in the cardiovascular system (Sacks et al., 2017; March & Oji, 2018; Pilgrim & Marcel, 2018).

References for Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

Briggs, M. A., Petersen, K. S., & Kris-Etherton, P. M. (2017). Saturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: Replacements for saturated fat to reduce cardiovascular risk. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)5(2), 29.

Hafen, B. B., & Sharma, S. (2019). Oxygen saturation. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing: The United States of America.

Marcel, C., &Engelke, Z. (2018). Cholesterol [Evidence-based care sheet]. Nursing Reference Center. Retrieved from

March, P., & Oji, O. (2018). Coronary artery disease: Modifiable risk factors [Evidence-based care sheet]. Nursing Reference Center. Retrieved from

Pilgrim, J., & Marcel, C. (2018). Dietary fat [Evidence-based care sheet]. Nursing Reference Center. Retrieved from

Rhodes, C. E., & Varacallo, M. (2019). Physiology, oxygen transport. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing: The United States of America.

Sacks, F. M., Lichtenstein, A. H., Wu, J., Appel, L. J., Creager, M. A., Kris-Etherton, P. M., Miller, M., Rimm, E. B., Rudel, L. L., Robinson, J. G., Stone, N. J., Van Horn, L. V., & American Heart Association (2017). Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: A presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation136(3), e1–e23.

Vold, M. L., Aasebø, U., Wilsgaard, T., & Melbye, H. (2015). Low oxygen saturation and mortality in an adult cohort: the Tromsø study. BMC Pulmonary Medicine15, 9.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Nursing Assignment Help

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