The Psychosocial model that would be analyzed in the following intervention is the model that defines the behavior and social interactions of an individual. The model explores the dimensions of human behavior and the behavior is highly influenced by the factors and environment in which the person is brought up. The model chosen for the intervention is Howe’s psychosocial model reviewed by Howe and Healy. The model constitutes the factors and situations that determine a person's behavior. The aspects of the model would be discussed through a case study. The various dimensions of the psychosocial behavior world are explored respectively.
Assessment of the case study: The case study that has been provided is about a woman Jane who has been found having suicidal ideation after having an argument with her boyfriend. After going through her background, it was found that Jane is a single mother to her daughter and separated from her original family. In her childhood as well, she was considered an ugly duckling. The major blow came when she became pregnant at the young age of sixteen. Although she shares a good relationship with her daughter who is now fifteen years old. Jane and her husband are not in touch now and Jane reported an abusive relationship of marriage where she was abused verbally and physically that led to the separation. She had alcohol abuse in the past and to normalize her tensions regarding finances and living by having marijuana and cigarettes.
By assessing the case study keeping in mind the social work, it can be seen that psychosocial behavior is nothing but the combination of psychology and society that influences the human behavior and the reaction that it poses. Considering the situation of Jane, it can be assessed that the child who is neglected at a young age, might face issues with self-esteem and can become agitated. The child must be loved and valued in order to stay mentally healthy. Circumstances can make a person weak and it is then the family with which an individual can grow. After marriage, Jane encounters a partner who is from a different emotional background and is an abuser. Their relationship becomes disturbed contributing to disturbances in Jane's life. According to Howe, 2002, the emotional and social experiences influence a lot in a woman’s life and many of her decisions are taken under that influence of disturbances and agitation. Being a single mother can also put pressure financially because one has to bring up a child alone (Howe, 2002). The financial pressure instills anxiety issues and coping up with it becomes difficult. It can lead to alcohol abuse the same as Jane is experiencing.
Interventions: There are other inceptions of the model that can be assessed. The interventions that can be applied are considering behavior and personality. The personality of the person is dependent on the social environment that he is grown in. According to Pyrczak and Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2018, an adverse environment that lacks love, empathy, and mutuality helps create and build a strong personality that can resist problems and strive to have faith in esteem. According to Fang et al., 2020, the lack of love and empathy can lead to a feeling of discontent and these can adversely affect the personality of a person. Such people can not handle the atrocities of stress and find it harder to adjust to the changing social environment (Fang et al., 2020). In this way, the social environment becomes the mental environment and in development, it establishes itself to be part of the personality (Pyrczak and Tcherni-Buzzeo, 2018). Attachment and relationships are also based on psychosocial theories and their perspective. Being attached to someone is a great example of a psychosocial perspective. It can be proved helpful in evaluating and understanding the quality of people's attachment to social relationships. The success of this model is based on measuring the social competence the individual has. Attachment can effectively assess and help in understanding the psychosocial perspective. According to del Pozo de Bolger., 2016, it defines feelings and behaviors that are engrossed in children from an early age. Jane’s attachment with her daughter can establish that it is her comfort zone and she can have all sorts of adjustments just to be with her daughter. Her need for love and care is established in relation to her daughter for whom she has been working and earning. It can be said that this behavior is a biologically established advancement for getting protective and caring relationships in the form of parents, siblings, or even children.
Evaluation of outcomes: The outcomes in the provided case study can be about the insecurities faced by Jane. The attachments Jane had gone through was not a strong one. In her family, she was never considered important and her early abusive marriage led to a gap of love and care. The protection and care she was supposed to get from her husband were denied. Instead, she had to face a lot of verbal and physical abuse which definitely would have affected her mind. Though it can be noted that her daughter has been her support and a reason to live. She mentions that her job and her daughter is the only positive thing that has happened in her life. But the strenuous relationship with her boyfriend has led to a disturbance in her mind where she displays instances of suicidal thoughts. It can be observed that Jane wants to have that space in her life where a person wants to love and affection from the spouse. According to Fang et al., 2020, the attachment theory can be utilized here and it can be according to the disorganized attachment. It can lead to confusion and insecurities (Fang et al., 2020).
The instances where Jane had been using marijuana also indicates that she has mental issues and deprivation that is nothing new but the effect she has on her mind due to her past experiences of relationship she had with her family and her estranged husband. There are several risks where the relationship lies. As stated by Rojo-Mota et al.,2017, the discontent of the mind can lead to such episodes of alcohol abuse. The case study suggests that she used marijuana and cigarettes in order to pacify her thoughts regarding the tension and disparities of finances. It can further be notified that she does not want the same things to happen to her daughter which she has gone through. It is important to understand that this is a form of care that is expressed by Jane. As a social worker, these types of women can be given financial, emotional, and social support so that the anxiety the face can be reduced to some extent (Healy, 2005). It is the work of social workers to increase the psychosocial health of the individual by providing strength to improve social factors (Rojo-Mota et al.,2017).
The detailed psychosocial practices stress the achievement of environment change where the social workers take measures to improve the quality of life by connecting the past and the present of the particular individual. According to (del Pozo de Bolger., 2016) when people are able to control their emotional, social, and mental behavior according to the situation, then it can be said to have healthy psychosocial development. The social workers must strive to achieve the above-mentioned state in the individuals who are going through disturbing faces in life. When there is no control over the feelings, anxiety arises and this arousal of anxiety can lead to several unhealthy experiences (del Pozo de Bolger., 2016).
Single and depressed mothers must be allowed to meet other single mothers. According to the Berkman et al., 2015, the sharing of the experiences of the same kind helps to acknowledge the fears and that it can be pacified during communication. Social workers may also provide low-intensity visits. There can be attempts made in order to increase benefits from society to the individuals (Berkman et al., 2015). In other harmful and extreme cases, clients may be helped to be in a new environment such as transferring residential flats in order to help in the regular functioning of psychosocial health.
Removal of risk factors must be done that can include abuse ranging from physical to sexual, marital problems, emotional neglect, financial disturbances. These can be removed by providing a certain amount of funding financially and continuously talking and counseling verbally to reduce the insecurities of emotional neglect and isolation (del Pozo de Bolger et al., 2016). The other important area of development is making the environment for the victim-friendly ensure the sound development of emotion and social areas. It would also strive to provide well being of the individual by promoting positivity (Healy, 2005). These are some briefs included in the model reviewed by Howe and Healy.
The psychosocial perspective in dealing with the disturbed mental state and social state can help identify the areas of imbalance. Social workers can help individuals by providing proper guidance and care by helping them grow their personality and development. The psychosocial theories in social work can work as a revitalizer in understanding the behavior of individuals under particular situations and circumstances. It provides a social understanding of the competence of the individual in balancing the mental and behavioral capacities. The psychosocial theories and its perspective can work well in providing an atmosphere of balance that can help in achieving good mental health leading to a healthy society for people to live in. The psychosocial perspective also helps in defining the behavior of the person in its social surrounding.
Berkman, L.F., Zheng, Y., Glymour, M.M., Avendano, M., Börsch-Supan, A. and Sabbath, E.L. (2015). Mothering alone: cross-national comparisons of later-life disability and health among women who were single mothers. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69(9), pp.865–872.
Healy, K 2005, Service Discourses: ’Psy’ & sociological ideas in social work in Healy, K, Social work theories in context: creating frameworks for practice, Houndmills, Palgrave Macmillan (Chapter 3)
Howe, D 2002, Psychosocial Work in Adams, R., Dominelli, L. & Payne, M, Social work: themes, issues & critical debates, 2nd edn, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan (Chapter 15)
Pyrczak, F. and Tcherni-Buzzeo, M. (2018). Evaluating Research in Academic Journals: A Practical Guide to Realistic Evaluation. [online] Google Books. Routledge. Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=KMV1DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT7&dq=psychosocial+model+recent+journals+academic+research&ots=eo_hEjfie1&sig=l41IXU1mbJLZTUzuPfkfgIlMMo8 [Accessed 9 Oct. 2020].
Rojo-Mota, G., Pedrero-Pérez, E.J. and Huertas-Hoyas, E. (2017). Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy in the Treatment of Addiction: Models, Practice, and Qualitative and Quantitative Research. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, [online] 71(5), p.7105100030p1. Available at: https://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=2646442.
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