Table of Contents
As per Lester and Ward (2019), ethics have always been a major point of consideration for governments and organizations across the world to provide a safe environment to cybercitizens. Ethics revolve around a group of elements which provide its true meaning which is that ethics is not just a set of rules which classify a task as right or wrong but a set of choices and the reasons behind those choices. These elements can be summed into some of the key concepts of ethics. Some of the concepts are:
Rights are a set of constraints which have a justified thought process which lead to setting up of those rights either by a government or the society, etc. ICT is a collection of some of the major industrial sectors such as electronics industry, media, entertainment and the internet. All these sectors provide their own set of rights. These rights vary from place to place and many other factors such as regional laws and governmental laws. For example, the internet provides the right to people to browse, upload and download ethical content which do not go against the laws set up.
Duty refers to the responsibilities a person has towards other things. It can be classified into two kinds, legal duties and moral duties. The main difference between the two is that legal duties are set by someone else and moral duties are set up by one’s own believes and rules. An example for legal duty can be following the laws set up the government and moral duty can be helping someone choose between what is right and what is wrong.
Truth is having a sense of reliance over something or someone. Trust is something that is valued across various things ranging from businesses to relationships. For example, trust is the basis of success for most e-wallet companies such as Google Pay. The reason Google Pay is widely acknowledged and used is because people trust the organization with the entire information related to their bank accounts.
Organizations have always been under the constant threat of facing cyber-attacks. Hackers tend to use new and improvised attempts to hack in to systems either internally or externally. Honeypots and honeynets are used to safeguard the organization from hackers especially external hackers. As per Cutler (2020), external hackers can be defined as someone who do not have legal access to the data possessed by the organization. With new effects being made to safeguard the organization’s data, honeypots refer to a server which is not the actual server holding the data of the organization. These servers act as pretend servers which force hackers into thinking that they are attacking the main server. There are different functions of the honeypot including keeping a track of the firewall logs of the honeypot server, the data entering or exiting the server, to determine the nature of tasks being carried out by kernel and user processes and to act as a tripwire to inform the administrator that unknown entities have made an attempt to enter the server. This methodology was upgraded using honeynets. Honeynets are groups of honeypots combined to together to trick the hacker into thinking that they were attacking a much larger system and the system they are attacking is real. It also provides a detailed information about the attack and is used to determine attacks over various components of a network. The idea of placing a honeypot is to only learn about an attack and the owner of the honeypot should not attempt at any countermeasures against the attackers. However, some considerations towards making a honeypot ethical would be that data used by it should be public. It should not interact with other accounts or devices over the network except those which are a part of the honeypot (Zhang, Zhang, Yuan & Tzeng, 2019).
The purpose of codes is to define the obligations a professional person has towards its clients and customers by combining them into certain benchmarks to serve as minimum qualifications to serve as an IT professional. They are used to inform a person about what is expected from them as a professional. Professional codes of conduct play a major role in defining the minimum standards which are required to be termed as an IT professional. They are not listed or formed in one time and are a product of evolution from feedback over a period of time. They are used for the betterment of responses of the members of an organization when confronted by ethical situations and helping them understand their ethical responsibilities. They are also used to lay forth the conditions in which the members of the organization are subjected to disciplinary action. Codes as a whole are used to describe 12 functions which sum up the professional codes including professionalism, etiquettes, good conduct, discipline, ideals, educating others, expressing ideals, forming rules, setting up guidelines, rights, promoting external relations, respecting interests of others and inspiring others to follow good conduct.
Some of the shortcoming associated to these codes include their lack of completeness and their inconsistency. For a value which is set on the basis of feedback and innovation over a period of time cannot be complete and correct at any given point of time. Also, a code may seem relevant at one time and may not be useful later. These are some drawbacks of these codes.
As per Business Queensland (n.d.), a trademark is used to differentiate between different goods and products. It is also used to describe its other types of goods in relation to which that particular product is used. A domain name on the other hand is used to specify the website address of a particular organization or business. As per the Australian Government (n.d.), the owner of a registered trademark has all the rights to use the trademark in relation to the goods the trademark was registered for but it cannot be used as a domain name. The domain name licences are issued by the Australian Domain Name Authority and is not entitled to having a trademark registered. There have been cases where organizations have registered same trademarks. Before setting up of new rules in Australia, this led to the phenomenon known as cybersquatting. It is used to refer a situation in which domain names associated with successful companies are registered and thereafter sold to make money. As per the Australian Domain Administration Limited (2019), whenever an organization approached the officials for a domain name with a registered trademark, the trademark must include a word mark and the domain name applied for must be an exact match of that word mark.
Subject: For information regarding the crashed server
Greetings of the day,
This to inform everyone that the crashed server is back online and functional. The server had crashed due to system overload. This led the server to heat up to threshold limits which caused it to malfunction followed by a downtime of almost 2 hours for the employees at office.
A backup of the system has been created and has been placed online to help everyone restart from where they were affected by the crash. Parallel to this, the backend team is working on restoring the crashed server and shall be fully functional in some time. The team in also putting in efforts to minimize the effects of over load on the server by setting up over load balancing solutions to divert the incoming traffic and distributing it over a group of servers.
We regret the time and efforts lost during this unavoidable situation. We shall learn from this and put in our best efforts to prevent such happenings in the future.
Kleinsteuber laid forth the four kinds of regulations which consists of various rules set by different institutions to control various issues involved in cyberspace. The four kinds of regulations are:
Australian Government. (n.d.). Trade marks, domain names and your online brand. Retrieved from: https://www.ipaustralia.gov.au/ip-for-digital-business/idea/trade-marks-and-domain-names#:~:text=The%20owner%20of%20a%20registered,use%20as%20a%20domain%20name.&text=au%20country%20code%20%E2%80%93%20it%20doesn,domains%20such%20as%20.com%20or%20.
Australian Public Service Commission. (n.d). Australian Government use of information and communication technology. Retrieved from: https://www.apsc.gov.au/australian-government-use-information-and-communication-technology
Cutler, T. (2020). Internal vs External Threats. Retrieved from: https://terrycutler.com/internal-vs-external-threats/
Dahlstrom, F. (n.d.). Can You Photograph Someone Without Permission? Retrieved from: https://www.gotocourt.com.au/civil-law/photograph-someone-without-permission/
Givoni, S. (n.d.). Photography without Permission: Is it Always Legal to Snap? Retrieved from: https://www.sharongivoni.com.au/photography-without-permission-legal-snap/
Lester, L. J. Y., & Dalat-Ward, Y. (2019). Teaching Professionalism and Ethics in Information Technology by Deliberative Dialogue In Information Systems Education Journal. 17(1). p 4. Retrieved from: https://isedj.org/2019-17/n1/ISEDJv17n1p4.pdf
Morris, M. (2019. The Privacy, Data Protection and Cybersecurity Law Review - Edition 6 AUSTRALIA. Retrieved from: https://thelawreviews.co.uk/edition/the-privacy-data-protection-and-cybersecurity-law-review-edition-6/1209990/australia
Stack, M. (2013). Australia: When photos break the law: breach of privacy or breach of contract? Retrieved from: https://www.mondaq.com/australia/privacy-protection/262736/when-photos-break-the-law-breach-of-privacy-or-breach-of-contract
Vaile, D. (2018). Australia should strengthen its privacy laws and remove exemptions for politicians. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/australia-should-strengthen-its-privacy-laws-and-remove-exemptions-for-politicians-93717
Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Yuan, X., & Tzeng, N. F. (2019). Pseudo-honeypot: Toward efficient and scalable spam sniffer In 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). pp 435-446.
Australian Domain Administration Limited. (2019). .au Licensing Rules: Trademarks and Eligibility for .au Domain Names. Retrieved from: https://www.auda.org.au/news/au-licensing-rules-trademarks-and-eligibility-for-au-domain-names/#:~:text=Under%20the%20new%20.,match%20of%20that%20word%20mark
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