Psychology: Behavioural Science



The effect of mindfulness on a projectile precision.



Material and apparatus.


Results and discussions.


Abstract on The Effect of Mindfulness on A Projectile Precision

The main aim of the study is to present and is to examine the influences of mindfulness valence either in positive or negative way, and the internal or external perspective performance of projectile. There are 300 participants who are undergraduate students and these students have to hit the bull eye by throwing the object in the projectile form out of five randomly allocated situations. The five randomly allocated situations can be internal negative, external negative, internal positive, external positive and no mindfulness. The results of the hypothesis shown that and findings also support that the positive mindfulness group can perform better and remarkable than the other group that is involved in negative mindfulness. The hypothesis also supports that the internal mindfulness group perform much better than external mindfulness group. It was also concluded that positive mindfulness also helps in improving the performance and help skill acquisition however the studies further test the influence of external and internal mindfulness across various tasks, mindfulness and characteristics of intervention.

The Effect of Mindfulness on A Projectile Precision

The world number one tennis player is very well known to use his negative and positive mindfulness and the player includes over like “C’mon!”. he was the former tennis player named Lleyton Hewitt. It is the motivation and instructions that helps in facilitating the player and increasing his performance in the sport. The mindfulness is necessary to motivate and to perform better in all the games. Mindfulness is a way by which people talk to themselves either loudly or silently. People can talk to themselves and get motivated and with the help of mindfulness people understand the direct thoughts or feelings (Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2017). This is the approach that show benefits in almost all areas. and has been shown to be beneficial in various fields, the field can be like anxiety related area and disorder treatment, management of pain and performance in sports. It is observed that different kinds of mindfulness have distinct kinds of influences on many distinct sports. The study from the study of Hardy (2016) explicitly help in redefining mindfulness in sports and it is a multi-dimensional approach that help athletes to address all the verbalizations for instructional purposes and for motivational purposes to themselves.

Theodorakis, Hatzigeorgiadis and Chroni (2018) also help in identifying the most important and empirical evidence that confirms a correlation among mindfulness and the performance in the sports. There were not enough evidences that indicates the casual influence, suggesting the future research must test the underlying functions and theory of mindfulness. In attempt to identify all the theoretical underpinnings of mindfulness, Theodorakis et al. (2008) outlined that Meichenbaum’s (1977) the behaviour which is elf instructional and is based on the modification theory to address the mediating influences of the self on performance. The self-statements are impacted behaviour by concentrating attention and other process of appraisal and also help in increasing the capacity to execute by warding off interrupting skills. According to this theory, Theodorakis et al. provide various mechanism with help of mindfulness that facilitates containing attentional concentration, improve confidence, regulation of efforts, emotional and cognitive control and executes the automatic triggers. Even though the above stated theories are not tested directly, Hatzigeorgiadis et al. (2018) helps in establishing the less mindfulness interfering thoughts. These also directly related to enhance the performance on the tasks.

Recently Hatzigeorgiadis et al. (2017) complied an analysis regarding literature of mindfulness and helps in identifying the four-key mechanism for performing better in the task, mindfulness, participant and intervention characteristics. All these get a moderate influence for mindfulness and a great influence for fine as compared to the motor skills tasks, well earned activity versus to novel task, and other interventions that includes training and in opposition no training. There are two drawbacks also of the study that is not mentioned by the author. They think that the main purpose of the study was to evaluate the enhancement of performance, negative mindfulness studies were also excluded from that study. The review of research help in producing the equivocal result of mindfulness. For instance, Van Raalte et al. (2015) tells about the study of influence of positive, neutral, and negative mindfulness on projectile making precision and get the positive mindfulness group to be more correct as compared to the negative group. On the other hand, Highlen and Bennet (2015) identified that wrestlers who git qualified to perform in the American Games associated perform better that has negative mindfulness more than the positive mindfulness when both compared to the one who are non-qualifiers, recommending that negative mindfulness can be as much as motivated as positive mindfulness. The other limitation of the evaluation is that while covert and overt mindfulness are the keys of mindfulness, the outcomes of the studies compare every perspective and these all perspectives are not reviewed.

According to study of Hardy (2016) there is no studies present currently that test the influence of external versus internal mindfulness in sports. The author, Hardy also identified that overt mindfulness has great influence on the performance as similar to the research of the other authors named Kyllo and Landers (2016) who demonstrates a great influence in size for private versus public setting of goals in sports. On the other hands, the more possible explanation of the overt mindfulness, getting external mindfulness distracting and uncomfortable (Hatzigeorgiadis et al. 2017). It is mentioned that external and internal talks is inherent to the definition of the mindfulness, this is the most important gap in the study. On the basis of the gaps and limitations in the earlier research that stated above, the main aim of this present research is to test the influences of mindfulness on both negative and positive, and the perspective on both external and internal as well on projectile creating performance. In order to accomplish the results in the area which is untested about the internal versus external mindfulness a good tested projectile creating task (Raalte et al., 2015). It was administered to new projectile creators as the earlier study shows the motor task that yield the maximum influence on the performance. To show more research by Raalte et al (2015) both participants, male and female and also get a check which is manipulated for projectile creating experience also included. All the participants command to hit the bull eye of a projectile board in one go out of five randomly allocated situations. The situations are external positive, internal positive, external negative, internal negative, and no mindfulness groups. So the hypothesis can be produced that

  1. Positive mindfulness situation performs better on creating a projectile task as compared to the neutral group.
  2. Negative situation would not be as accurate as neutral group.
  3. Internal mindfulness group is much better than external mindfulness group.

Method of The Effect of Mindfulness on A Projectile Precision


A total of 300 students who are undergraduate from the University participated. All the students allocated one of the five experimental situations randomly.

1) internal positive mindfulness n = 52

2) internal negative mindfulness n = 60

3) external positive mindfulness, n = 62

4) external negative mindfulness n = 74

 5) neutral mindfulness n = 52.

Material and Apparatus

A board is need on which the participants through the object to create the projectile, the board’s diameter should be 35.5 cm and it is located 210 cm from the line of target with the height of 183 cm. six sharp objects were used and throws the sharp object in a projectile motion. There are some questions that need to ask by the participants such, do the participants know about the projectile, and how often they throw the objects in the projectile motion.


All the participants were examined in groups (n =15 to 26). Every group allocated one of the five conditions randomly. The conditions are internal positive mindfulness, internal negative mindfulness, external positive mindfulness, external negative mindfulness, and no mindfulness. All the instructions are given to the participants that they have to hit the bull eye with a sharp object but the sharp object should also create a projectile motion.

Results and Discussions on The Effect of Mindfulness on A Projectile Precision

Table 1. Sharp object throwing by mindfulness Condition


Mean distance

Standard deviation

Internal positive mindfulness



internal negative mindfulness



external positive mindfulness



external negative mindfulness



neutral mindfulness



The hypothesis shows that the internal mindfulness is more efficient and effective than the external mindfulness and it was not supported by the results as there is no difference among these situations. The same result is for the external and internal situations that do not support the theory presented by Theodorakis et al. (2008) about the overt mindfulness. The theory is distracting and provide an adverse influence on the dimensions of the mindfulness. According to the results, there is no connection between the performance and the mindfulness. In the end, this study presents the research that identified mindfulness is an effective approach for enhancing the performance in the sports and therefore motivates its application to apply in the real-world situations.

References for The Effect of Mindfulness on A Projectile Precision

Hardy, J. (2016). Speaking clearly: A critical review of the self-talk literature. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 81-97. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.04.002

Van Raalte, J. L., Brewer, B. W., Lewis, B. P., Linder, G. E., Wildman, G., & Kozimor, J. (2015). Cork! The effects of positive and negative self-talk on dart throwing performance. Journal of Sports Behaviour, 18, 50-57. Retrieved from ebd0-49af b3ec7752cb654c36%40sessionmgr111&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1za XRl#db=psyh&AN=1996-90697-001

Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Galanis, E, & Theodorakis, Y. (2017). Self-talk and sports performance: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 348-356. doi: 10.1177/1745691611413136

Highlen, P. S., & Bennett, B. B. (2015). Elite divers and wrestlers: A comparison between open and closed-skill athletes. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 390-409. Retrieved from

Kyllo, L. B., & Landers, D. M. (2016). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 117-137. Retrieved from /DocumentItem/8999.pdf

Sanders, M. R., Shepherd, R. W., Cleghorn, G., & Woolford, H. (2004). The treatment of recurrent abdominal pain in children: A controlled comparison of cognitive-behavioural family intervention and standard pediatric care. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 306-314. Retrieved from =f5afbae8-ebd0-49af-b3ec-7752cb654c36%40sessionmgr111

Theodorakis, Y., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., & Chroni, S. (2018). Self-talk: It works, but how? Development and preliminary validation of the Functions of Self-Talk Questionnaire. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 12, 10-30. doi: 10.1080/10913670701715158.

Treadwell, K. R. H., & Kendall, P. C., (2006). Self-talk in youth with anxiety disorders: States of mind, content specificity, and treatment outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 941-950. Retrieved from =f5afbae8-ebd0-49af-b3ec-7752cb654c36%40sessionmgr111

Ziegler, S. G. (2017), Effects of stimulus cueing on the acquisition of ground strokes by beginning tennis players. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 405-411. Retrieved from 02-0106.pdf

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