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Phytogeography, commonly known as organic geology is an offshoot of biogeography; which deals with the geographic dissemination of different plant species and their influence on the surface of the Earth. Its focus is on all the aspects of plant distribution, incorporating the controls on the conveyance of species ranges, and the factors contributing to the compositions of the plethora of communities and floras.
‘Campbell’ in 1926, explained phytogeography, in which he mentioned that the important theme of plant geography is the discovery of differences and similarities in plants and floras of the different parts of the Earth with respect to the past and the present. In 1943, ‘Wulff’ explained the term as the study of different plant spices and their distribution, in their natural habitats. It further includes the explanation of inception and the various process of development of floras. Later in the year 1952, ‘Croizat’ explained phytogeography as the study dealing with plants’ exodus and advancement in time and space.
This division of phytogeography studies the explanation of the differences between the various floristic and vegetation groups found on the surface of the entire globe.
Migration and evolution of plants and floras are the main components of this division of phytogeography. It explains the reason for the exodus of various species of plants throughout the Earth. The study involves various specialized disciplines like- ecology, palaeontology, geology, physiology, taxonomy, genetics, and evolution. Furthermore, it incorporates the synthesis and integration of data and concepts from the aforementioned specialized disciplines.
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Lawrence in 1953 proposed 13 modern principles of phytogeography. They are classified into 4 groups. These are:
Principles regarding environment
Climatic conditions play a major role in the distribution of plant species.
The exodus of plant species have also been affected during the geological past, and its variation in climate.
Landmasses and Sea masses relations have had diversified past. There were orientation and separation after the breaking up of the landmasses to form new landmasses or continents. For the migration of different plant and animal species, these landmasses acted as probable bridges. With time, these bridges submerged in water and the possibility of further migration from one continent to another disappeared.
The secondary factors affecting the distribution of vegetation are- different land masses, and their soil conditions. Whereas, Halophytes, Calcifobs, Calcicols, Psammophytes, etc. evolved due to edaphic conditions.
For the migration and establishment of various species of plants, biotic factors also play a major role.
The environment plays a holocentric (combined effects of various environmental aspects) aspect over the vegetation.
Principles regarding plant responses
The range of different species depends on their tolerance. Each plant species has a range of climate and edaphic conditions. So, the tolerance of the large species depends upon the tolerance of the individual constituencies.
Genetic aspects do affect the tolerance level. The response of a species depends upon their genetic makeup. It is found that hybrid plants have a higher tolerance level to environmental conditions due to their genes.
It is found that the tolerance level differs throughout the ontogenesis. For example, seeds and mature plants are more tolerant of harsh temperatures and humidity conditions than their seedlings.
Principles regarding the exodus of floras
Palaeoecological evidence and fossils have reiterated that the large scale exodus of plant and animal species occurred during the Mesozoic and tertiary periods.
Pants migrate through their propagules such as- pollen, spores, etc. These propagules establish whether the environmental conditions are favourable for survival.
Principles regarding the prolongation and progression of floras
Perpetuation is primarily affected by the migration, and secondly by the tolerance ability of their species to the environment for procreation.
Environmental selection, evolution, and migration of species are important factors affecting the progression of floras.
Further, the study is categorized into various taxa based on the surface of the Earth occupied by plants:
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