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Teachers and Teaching in Vocational and Professional Education

Free and compulsory education is provided to all the students from the ages of 6 to 15 in Algeria (Singh, 2016). The education system in Algeria primarily consists of providing education to students in the Arabic language, however from 2003 students are also taught in Berber and Tamazight language. A report cumulated in 2015 recorded that there are 92 post-secondary institutions and out of which 48 are universities (Naylor, 2016). 

Language has been a source of major controversies in the education system in Algeria and shifts from the bilingualism in French and Arabic to monolingualism wherein the Arabic language has dominated the education structure, has been subject to a lot of issues among the graduates making their entry in economic market (Negadi, 2015).

The primary education (Enseignement Primaire) in Algeria is formatted in terms of three cycles with every cycle consisting of three years each. Thus, making 9 years of education compulsory for all the students from ages 6 to 15 in the country. The primary education system consists of three tracks namely general, technical, or tracks. Before getting into the secondary education, the students have to take final year exams and pass them for the admission. Secondary education in Algeria is of two types namely technical and general. After the primary education that ends at the age of 15, secondary educations starts. Beginning at the age of 15 and ending when the students take the baccalaureate examination to proceed to universities, secondary education forms an important element in the educational journey of the students. Some of the students also move directly to vocational training centers, state technical universities, or employment post the secondary stage of the education. Schooling is free for the students in addition to this state also offers scholarships programs for the living expenses in the state for the students. Primary and lower secondary schools in Algeria are referred to as “Enseignment Fondemental” (Education policy data center, 2017).

Higher education in Algeria consists of universities and national institutes. These include engineering schools, teachers' colleges, and so on for higher education. The maximum number of universities is administrated by the ministry of education and 90 percent of degrees are produced are the bachelor’s degrees. Other remaining institutes come under the control of other ministries (The Report, 2014).

Vocational education in Algeria is not very prominent in the country. This is mainly because of the invasion of the French which has left the country with no national vocational education policy. This is because the colonial authorities regarded vocational schools are the second-class education options for “natives” and because of that soon after independence Algerians found themselves having a strong aversion to these types of schooling. In addition to this, vocational education did not get its due also because of the post the independence the government was the dominant employer in the country, and the country has seen itself focusing on providing appropriate training to the people in accordance to principals of government employment (Education encyclopedia, 2014).

The education structure in England begins from the age of 5 with full-time education being compulsory from age 5 to 18 for all the children. Before getting into the compulsory education structure, children amongst the ages of 3 to 5 are also titled to an optional, state-funded, pre-school education which comprises 600 hours per year. This is provided in terms of exposing children to “playgroups”, community childcare centers, nurseries, and/or nurseries classes in the school (World Bank, 2020).

The education system funded by the state consists of five key stages. The first stage is the foundation year and starts from age 5 to 7. This is regarded as the years 1 to 2 of the education of the students and known as the early year’s foundation stage. The second key stage is for the pupil's age 8 to 11 years old. This stage is referred to as the primary education stage. Key stage 3 is for children aged between 12 to 14 years and is called secondary education in England. Secondary education is continued in the key stage four and key stage five with children between the age groups 15 to 16 and 17 to 188 respectively. The tertiary education begins from the age of 18+, after which the policy of compulsory education is ended and the student is free to choose up the pat they want to follow. Changes have been made in the education policies with the education and skills act, 2008 which came into effect in 2013 partially and 2015 fully. There have revisions and separations of the school leaving age which is 16 now and education leaving age which 18 (Education and Skills At, 2018).

Higher education is delivered by the Higher Education (HE) colleges, university colleges, and colleges run by private stake-holders in England. The usual age of entering the college is 18 onwards which includes providing students with undergraduates programs consisting of both vocational and academic qualifications. This includes providing the students with several certifications of higher education, bachelor's degrees, diplomas, higher national certificates, foundational degrees (The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK degree-awarding Bodies, 2014).

Schools in England comprises of community schools (maintained by the local authority), foundation schools and vocabulary schools (financed by the local authority and at times supported by religious groups), academies and free schools (non-for-profit academy trusts), and grammar schools (could be run by any one of the mentioned above). 

Vocational courses in England are quite elaborative and spread to multiple areas. For instance, for teachers re-contextualization of knowledge is done by applying to the related occupational areas. Managers are supposed to empathize and support and take part in policymaking and curriculum development through occupational programs (Loo, 2018)

The two countries differ in terms of their education policies and structure. The difference in the way the education system is planned and implemented in the countries could be because of the number of factors like history, the development, the socio-cultural set-up, and so on.

References for The Education System in Algeria and England

“Education policy data center (2017). Retrieved from

Education encyclopedia (2014). Algeria: History & background, constitutional & legal foundations, educational system—overview, preprimary & primary education, secondary education. Retrieved from

Education and Skills Act 2008. (2008). Office of Public sector information. Retrieved from

Loo, S. (2018) Teachers and teaching in vocational and professional education. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge Ltd. Retrieved from

Naylor, Phillip, C. (2015). Historical dictionary of Algeria (Fourth edition). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; 221

Negadi, M. N. (2015). "Learning English in Algeria through French-based background proficiency". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Science, 199, 496–500. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.07.537

Singh, K (2016). "Report of the special rapporteur on the right to education".

The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK degree-awarding Bodies" (2014) Retrieved from

 The Report: Algeria (2014). Oxford Business Group. Retrieved from

World Bank (2020). U.K. Literacy Rate 1990-2020".

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